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Chapter 13

Chapter 13 Textbook Summary

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University of Toronto St. George
Dan Dolderman

Chapter 13 Personality1 Type and Trait Approaches Describe Behavioural Dispositions o Personality Types discrete categories based on global personality characteristicso Implicit Personality Theory predictions about people based on minimal evidence because we assume certain traits go together o Trait Approach an approach to studying personality that focuses on the extent to which individuals differ in personality dispositions o Factor Analysis grouping items according to their similaritieso Eysencks Hierarchial Modelo Specific Response Level consists of observed behaviours o Habitual Response Level habit behaviour in a certain event o Trait person is observed to behave the same way on many occasionso Superordinate TraitsIntroversionextroversion differences in biological functioning Emotional Stability extent to which peoples moods and emotions change those low are neuroticPsychoticism mix of aggression impulse control and empathy high are more aggressive impulsive and self centered than lowConstraint people range from restrained to disinhibitedo The Big Fiveo FiveFactor Theory idea that personality can be described using five factors openness to experience conscientiousness extroversion agreeableness and neuroticismo Each factor is a higherorder trait comprising interrelated lowerorder traits o Emerges across cultures but some crosscultural differences emerge o Theory is valuable as an organizational structure for the vast number of traits that describe personality Factors exist at more than descriptive level2 Personality Reflects Learning and Cognition o Personal Constructs importance of peoples understandings of their circumstances o Behaviour is a function of peoples expectancies for reinforcement And the values they ascribe to particular reinforcers o Internal Locus of Control believe they bring their own rewards o External Locus of Control believe that rewards result from forces beyond control o CognitiveSocial Theories of Personality emphasize how personal beliefs expectancies and interpretations of social situations shape behaviour and personalityo Selfefficiacy extent to which people believe they can achieve specific outcomes
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