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Chapter 7

Psy100h1 Textbook notes chapter7 part2

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Mishkin developed first animal model of memoryy Monkey placed in box with retractable door y Hippocampus and surrounding rhinal cortex are essential for declarative memory eg monkey reward under card experiment Spatial memory hippocampus y Memory for physical environment and includes such things as direction location of objects and cognitive mapsy eg Morris water maze test rat must find the hidden platformy in hippocampuso supported by place cells neurons that only fire once the animal returns to a specific location None fire in a new environmenty Hippocampus helps animals to orient and find their way y Birds with rely on finding stored food have larger hippocampuses than those who dont y Also important for spatial memory in humans remembering location of objects in pictures Frontal Lobes y important in episodic memory working memory spatial memory time sequences and various aspects of encoding and retrievaly Networks connect prefrontal cortex to other memory regions including the medial temporal areasy frontal lobes work together with other brain regions to coordinate encoding storage and retrievalDamage to frontal lobes not profound memory loss buto difficulty with time sequence o and wherewhen the information was learnedeg in the very young and old with frontal lobe deficitsy crucial for encoding o deeper encoding tasks more likely to lead to frontal activation than shallow ones o front activation predictor of which events are later rememberedforgotten more the activation the more likely to remember y brain activity in regions that are involved in processing specific types of info is associated with better memory for that type of info o eg medial prefrontal cortex is selectively active when think about self y left frontal lobes are more active during encoding right frontal lobes are more active during episodic retrieval called this pattern hemispherical encoding retrieval asymmetry HERA o argue that pattern in left hemisphere may be due to info used in tasks o left hemi verbal right hemi nonverbal Asymmetry in memory applies more to the type of material studied than to memory processes themselvesworking memorybecomes activated when info retrieved from LTM into Front lobes involved in working memory or encoded from working memory into LTMy Evidence monkey watches as reward hidden under two objects After delay monkey reaches for object with reward Monkey with frontal lesions have difficulty doing this Also human babies Frontal lobes and medial temporal lobes work together to consolidate LT declarative memory storage Hippocampus helps strengthen associations in working memory so new experiences consolidated into permanent storageNeurotransmitters and Memory Memory modulators are neurotransmitters that can modify storage of memoryMemory modulation system that determines if something is important y Important events lead to neurochemical changes that produce emotional experiences especially likely to be stored in memory y injecting epinephrine induces stat of arousal boosts memory for trivial eventsthough epinephrine in periphery not brain so no direct effect on memory o possibly through having effect on norepinephrine in amygdala or glucose enters brain and influences memory storage release Other drugs such as alcohol and anaesthetics also interfere with memory through effects on norepi
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