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Canada (158,217)
Psychology (2,948)
PSY100H1 (1,804)
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University of Toronto St. George

Chapter 4Phrenology based on idea of functional localization assess personality traitsmental abilities by measuring bumps on skullFranz Gall and Johann SpurzheimoFlourens critic thought that brain worked as single unitoKarl Lashley believed in equipotentiality all parts of the cortex contributed equally to mental abilitiesWe know today that brain is a patchwork of highly specialized areasBrocas area first strong evidence supporting a specialized brainthe left frontal region of the brain that is crucial to the production of languageMind is adaptive Brains specialized mechanismsregulate breathing food intake sexual behavior bodily fluidssensory systems some basic roles have changed little over evolution eg breathingSpinal cordPart of CNS a rope of neural tissue that runs from pelvis to base of skullSegmented into 2 tissue typesogrey matter dominated by cell bodies of neuronsowhite matter mostly axons and myelin sheaths odistinguishable in brain as wellrelays info also controls spinal reflex conversion of sensation to action eg stretch reflexThickens into brainstemHouses the most basic roles of survival breathing swallowing vomiting urination orgasmBecause it is a continuation of spinal cord performs for head similar to what spinal cord does for rest of bodyoComplement of reflexes analogous to spinal reflexes Eg gaggingHas nerves connecting to skin and muscles of head and specialized sensory organs of head like eyes and ears Includes reticular formation large network of neurons within brainstem involved in general arousal behavioral sleepwake cycles It is also involved in inducing and terminating the different stages of sleepCerebellumlarge convoluted protuberance at the back of the brainstem that is essential for coordinated movementbalanceLittle Brain needed for motor function motor learning functional imaging ataxia clumsiness ABOVE cerebellum and brain stem is the Forebraintwo cerebral hemispheresocerebral cortexosubcortical regions hypothalamusthalamushippocampusamygdalebasal gangliamany of these part of limbic systemseparating the evolutionary order brainstem cerebellum and new cerebral cortexinclude basic drives eating drinking emotionsSubcortical regions Hypothalamus REGULATION of body controls pituitary glands ie hormones master gland smaller in womengay men Thalamus GATWAY to brain receives all income sensory info except smell shuts gate during sleep some role in attentionHippocampus MEMORY creates new interconnections within cortex grey matter expands from each new experienceAmygdala EMOTION overrules instinct emotionalsexual arousal plays special role in stimuli that makes FEAR
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