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Chapter 2

Chapter 2

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University of Toronto St. George
Michael Inzlicht

Research Methodology - People form opinions and explanations as to why some act the way the do, many of those explanations are false - Critical thinking is a systemized scrutinizing of the evidence through scientific method o Skepticism o Objective approach to questions - Intuitions are usually founded on limited information and might be biased o Intuitions are used to guide scientific research rather than answer its questions - To answer questions, scientists use objective, systematic procedures so they can develop an accurate understanding of the phenomena they are trying to study - Hypothesis o Test the hypothesis (by may be setting up a study) o Experiments in which you manipulate situation in order to see changes that occur in the mental state or behaviour Compare your finding with a control group Once youre collected the data you use statistical procedures to analyze it What is scientific inquiry? 1. Scientific questions can be objectively answered - Science assumes that the world works in an orderly fashion based on physical laws - Scientific method is the objective examinations of the natural world - Scientific inquire has four basic goals o What happens (Description) Description stare Observations in a systematic fashion o When it happens (Prediction) When a certain behaviour. Mental process occurs www.notesolution.com Observation can reveal that evens happen together So one can be used to predict the occurrence of the other o What causes it to happen (Causal Control) Causal control Systematically varying the situation to produce a change in behaviour or mental state Cause-Effect relationship between variables o Why it happens (Explanation) Explanation as to why something happens - To fully understand a phenomena it is required to examine it across different levels on analysis, which is the essence of scientific inquiry - Scientific inquire is the study of empirical questions which can be answered by observing and measuring the world around us - Scientific questions are those that can be tested and either confirmed or shown to be false - It does not matter what the scientist think about the questions - Answers to empirical questions should be able to be answered in a similar manner by different researchers - If the study is properly designed and conducted and the findings are valid, the study needs to be able to be replicated o Replication repetition of an experiment to repeat the results - By repeating and confirming scientists are able to build the principles of psychological science 2. The Empirical process depends on theories, hypothesis and research - Empirical process is a dynamic relationship between three elements o Theory a model of interconnected ideas and concepts that explains what is observed and makes predictions about the future o Hypothesis a specific prediction as to what should be observed in the real world if the theory is correct www.notesolution.com Direct test of the theory o Research scientific process that involves the systematic ad careful collection of data - Data objective observations or measurement o Should test the hypothesis and the theory - Good research reflects a dynamism relationship between the three elements a. Theories should generate hypotheses - Good theory produces a variety of testable hypotheses o Good theory - Jean Piagets theory of infant-child development o Bad theory Freuds theory that dreams represent fulfillment of wishes Actual function of dreams cannot be scientifically studied b. The value on unexpected findings - Research does not always proceed in orderly fashion - Serendipity the unexpected stumbling on something important o When some even occurs when it was not part of the original plan - Study of cats response to dots, when slides jammed it was discovered that their vision responds to edges and lines Review - Subjective beliefs are formed on limited information and can be biased - To explain something scientists need to study it objectively, systematically using scientific method - The for goals of psychological science when trying to explain behavior or mental activity is to: o Describe what o Predict when o Control what causes o Explain why - Empirical process based on theories www.notesolution.com o Hypothesis Collection of objective data - Theories must be adjusted and/or refined, good theory lots of hypotheses What are the types of studies is psychological research? - There are three main types of research studies o Experimental o Correlation o Descriptive Differ the extent to which the researched has the control over variables - Variable something in the world that can be measured and that can vary o Researcher can either measure or manipulate the variable o In alcohol and driving, ex level of intoxication Control over variables dictates the extent to which conclusions about causation can be made - Variables must be clearly, precisely defined that reflect the method used to assess them o This is done using operational definitions Operational definitions the qualification of variable that allows it to be measured, quantifies the variable Ex how would you quantify coordination while under the influence of alcohol? o Having people touch their nose, the operational definition is the number of inches people miss by o Concrete definitions of variables would help other researchers to precisely know what is being measured This would allow them to replicate the study www.notesolution.com
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