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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Genetics and Biological Foundations

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht
Semester
Winter

Description
1 Chapter 3 The Biological Basesof Behaviour CommunicationintheNervousSystem NervousTissue:TheBasicHardware Thecellsinthenervoussystemfall intotwomajor categories: GLIAandNEURONS. Neurons=individual cellsinthenervoussystemthatreceive,integrate,andtransmit information. Majorityof themcommunicatewithother neuronsbut aminorityreceivesignalsfromsensoryorgansor carrymessagestothemuscles. - Soma(cellbody) containsthecell nucleusandmuchof thechemicalmachinerycommonto most cells. - Dendrites thepartsof aneuronthatarespecializedtoreceiveinformation. - Axon along,thinfibrethat transmitssignalsawayfromthesomato other neuronsor to musclesor glands. - Myelinsheath insulationmaterial,derivedfromglialcells,thatencasessomeaxons. - Terminalbuttons small knobsthatsecretechemicalscalledneurotransmitters. - Synapse ajunctionwhereinformationistransmittedfromoneneuron toanother. Glia=cellsfoundthroughout thenervoussystemthat providevarioustypesof support for neurons. Smaller thanneuronsbut outnumber thembyabout 10:1. Glialcellshelpnourishneurons,helpremove wasteproducts,provideinsulationaroundaxons. TheNeuralImpulse:UsingEnergytoSendInformation Behaviour dependsoncomplexinformationprocessinginthenervoussystem. Cellsinthe nervoussystemreceive,integrate,andtransmit information . Neuronsarethebasiccommunication links. Theynormallytransmit aneuralimpulsealonganaxonto asynapsewithanother neuron. The neuralimpulseisabrief changeinaneuronselectricalchargethatmovesalonganaxon. Neuronsare surroundedbyfluidscontainingelectricallychargesatomsandmoleculescalledions. Positivelycharged sodiumandpotassiumionsandnegativelychargedchlorideionsflow backandforth across the semipermeablecell membrane. The restingpotentialof aneuronisitsstable,negativechargewhenthe cell isinactive(about -70millivolts). Anactionpotentialisaverybrief shift inaneuronselectricalchargethat travelsalonganaxon. It isanall-or-noneevent. Thebsoluterefractoryperiodistheminimumlengthof timeafter anaction potentialduringwhichanother action potentialcannot begin. TheSynapse:WhereNeuronsMeet Theneuronthatsendsasignalacrossthegapiscalledthepresynapticneuronandtheneuronthat receivesthesignal iscalledthepostsynapticneuron. Thearrivalof anactionpotentialatanaxons terminalbuttonstriggersthereleaseof neurotransmitterschemicalsthattransmit informationfrom oneneuronto another. www.notesolution.com
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