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Chapter 16

CHAPTER 16.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Dan Dolderman

CHAPTER 16 Cultural Psychology What is culture Beliefs values rules and customs of a group of people who share the same language or environment This is all transmitted from one generation to another Psychologists have a broader sense any kind of info acquired by individuals through imitative or social learningDolphins and primate imitate to learn but humans do this much better Humans are the only true cultural speciesEvolutionary perspective relation between the average group size in which various primate species live and the proportion of the cerebral cortex in their brains Large average group size larger the cerebral cortex ratioo Benefits to group living opportunities for social learning pooled resources protection against predators o STUDY children and adult chimpanzees Physical problems are done by both equally Social learning tasks done better by children Humans therefore more adept at learning from others o Sophisticated communication skills to convey beliefs intentions and thoughts o Theory of mind imagine intentions of others o Accumulation of cultural information improvise and add to the behavior Tools becoming more sophisticated All culture evolves over timeo Other primates cannot perform these sophisticated cultural learning What is cultural psychologyWilliam Wundt argued higher order psychological processes needed to be studied by considering the cultural environments in which they occurHence most people are exposed to a single allencompassing set of norms and shared understandingo Theme 1 addresses how each person is related to others o Theme 2 universal and culturally specific psychologies exist How does culture affect the mind Anthropological finding common foundation underlies the psychological experiences of all people These universal characteristics are shaped and expressed differently across cultures Eg marriage practices vary across cultures The mind need to have a rich understanding of the cultureo Tailoring education In some cultures standardized tests can hold back students but in Japan this doesnt happen NA schools individual promotion Japanese social promotion and belongingo Humans are prewired to acquire cultural information Eg language Many children cant distinguish between phonemeso Humans are born without any culture but acquire it when socialized Correspondence bias the tendency to explain others behavior by emphasizing personal attributions over situational attributionsfundamental attribution errorWesterners tend to view the individual as the source of action and control whereas people from south and east Asia tend to see behavior as arising from an individuals interaction with others according to situational demandsSTUDY deviant behavior caused by something about the person or something about the situation American adults showed more correspondence bias whereas most Indian adults did notSocialization shapes how people view themselves Individualistic culture internal aspects of the selfCollectivist culture interdependent and grounded in shared aspects of the selfSTUDY Western and Chinese participants asked how well adjectives describe themselves and their mothers Westerners had different regions activate for each evaluation The Chinese had the same brain regions for both evaluations
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