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Chapter 14

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Chapter 14Treating Disorders of Mind and BodyPsychodynamic therapy focuses on INSIGHT Psychotherapy changing the patterns of thought and behaviourFreud was the first to develop psychological treatment for mental illness he believed mental disorders were caused by prior experiences particularly early traumatic experiencesBreuer developed the method of psychoanalysis in which the patient typically lay on a couch with the therapist sitting out of view in order to reduce the patients inhabitations and allow freer access of unconscious thought processesTreatment was based on uncovering unconscious feelings and drives believed to give rise to maladaptive thoughts and behaviours Techniques included free association in which the patient says whatever comes to mind and dream analysis in which the therapist interprets the hidden meaning of dreamsFocus on insight understanding his or her own psychological processesModified versions used today however more focus on todays relationshipsShortterm therapy useful for depression eating disorders substance abuseHumanistic Therapies focus on THE WHOLE PERSONTreat the person as a whole not as a collection of behaviours or a repository of repressed and unconscious thoughtsClientcentered therapyfulfill individual potentials for personal growth through greater selfunderstandingNeed to be empathicUse reflective listening repeating clients concerns to help clarify his or her feelingsMotivational interviewing good treatment for drug and alcohol abuseBehavioural Therapy focus on OBSERVABLE BEHAVIORConsider maladaptive behavior to be the problem itself and not result of underlying problemBasic premise is that the behavior can be unlearnedReflect the medical approach to illness and disease A limitation is that although they are often effect in the short term longterm success requires the person to continue treatment sometimes indefinitelyBehaviour modification based on operant conditioning rewards desired behaviours and ignores or punishes unwanted behaviours Socialskills training is an effective way to elicit desired behaviourModeling in which the therapist acts out appropriate behaviour oThe client is encouraged to imitate this behaviour rehearse it in therapy and later apply the learned behaviour to realworld situationsAn approach that integrates insight therapy with behavioural therapy is interpersonal therapy which focuses on relationships that the patient attempts to avoid oTreatment is focused on helping patients express their emotions and explore interpersonal experiencesExposure therapy for phobia repeatedly expose based on classical conditioningoGradual form of exposure is systematic desensitization uses relaxationoTechniques to allow client to imagine anxiety producing situation while maintaining relaxationCognitiveBehavioural therapy focuses on FAULTY COGNITIONSBased on the theory that distorted thoughts can produce maladaptive behaviors and emotions Modifying these thoughts can be used as treatmentsCognitive restructuring in which clinicians help their parents recognize maladaptive thought patterns and replace them with ways of viewing the world that are more in tune with reality Rationalemotive therapy introduced by Albert Ellis in which therapists act as teachers who explain and demonstrate more adaptive ways of thinking and behaving Cognitivebehavioural therapy CBT is perhaps the most widely used version of cognitive therapy it incorporates techniques from behavioural therapy and cognitive therapy CBT tries both to correct faulty cognitions and to train clients to engage in new behavioursoHas proven to be on the of most effect forms of psychotherapy for many types of mental illness especially anxiety disorders and mood disordersGroup Therapy builds SOCIAL SUPPORTBenefits include improving social skills and learning from others and providing supportFamily Therapy focuses on the family context
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