Psychologist seek to understand how people perceive, think, and act.
Psychological science-study of mind, brain and behavior.
Behavior-a wide variety of actions, from the subtle to the complex, that occur in all organisms.
Schizophrenia-causes a person to have unusual thoughts
Bipolar disorder-causes a person to have dramatic mood swings, from feeling extremely sad to
Da Vinci-Rene Descartes(dualism)-mind and body are separate yet intertwined radical.
Neurotransmitters-chemicals that communicate messages between nerve cells
1900-decade of the brain
The accumulating evidence indicates that the mind is adaptive in biological and cultural terms
Adaptations-physical characteristics, skills, and abilities-that increased their chances of survival
and reproduction and ensured that their genes were passed along to future generations.
Charles Darwin-on the origin of species-theory of evolution-natural selection: the process by
which organisms’ random mutations that are adaptive are passed along and random
mutations that hinder survival are not.
Survival of the fittest-those better adapted to their environments will leave more offspring, those
offspring will produce more offspring.
Globalization-the flow of people, commodities, and financial instruments among all regions of
Westerners-analytic-emphasize their personal strengths
Easterners-holistic-emphasize their need for self-improvement
Interdisciplinary-share the goal of understanding how biological, individual, social and cultural
factors influence our specific behaviors.
Biological-physical body, neurochemical and genetic processes
Individual-individual differences in personality and in the mental processes that affect how
people perceive and know the world
Social-how group context affect people’s ways of interacting and influencing each other
Culture-explores how people’s thoughts, feelings, and actions are similar or differences across
Seven themes of psychological science(P15)
Wilhelm wundt-first psychology lab and institute
Introspection-a systematic examination of subjective mental experiences that requires people to
inspect and report on the content of their thoughts.(subjective)
Edward titchener-structuralism-an approach to psychology based on the idea that conscious
experience can be broken down into its basic underlying components or elements.
William James-structuralism-principles of psychology-stream of consciousness
Functionalism-an approach to psychology concerned with the adaptive purpose, or function,
of mind and behavior.
Gesalt theory-a theory based on the idea that the whole of personal experience is different from
simply the sum of its constituent elements.-reflects the perception of objects is subjective and
dependent on context.
Sigmund Freud-unconscious-the mental processes that operate below the level of conscious
awareness. Psychoanalysis-a method that attempts to bring the contents of the unconscious into
conscious awareness so that conflicts con be revealed.
John B. Watson-behaviorism-an approach that emphasizes environmental effects on
George A. Miller-cognitive psychology-the study of how people think, learn and remember.
The brain as the hardware that ran the mind, or mental processes, as the software
Cognitive neuroscience-1990s-the study of neural mechanisms that underlie thought,
learning and memory
Social psychology-the study of group dynamics in relation to psychological processes.
Kurt Lewin-field theory-the interplay between people and their environments, such as social
situations and group dynamics
APPLY PSYCHOLOGICAL SICENCE
Critical thinking-a systematic way of evaluating information to reach reasonable
conclusions.—purposeful, reasoned, and goal directed
The Mozart Effect
Scientific method-a systematic procedure of observing and measuring phenomena to answer
questions about what happens, when it happens, what causes it, and why.
-theory-hypothesis-research-support the theory-hypothesis
-refute or fail to support the theory-theory
Theory-a model of interconnected ideas and concepts that explains what is observed and makes
predictions about future events.
Hypothesis-a specific prediction of what should be observed in the world if a theory is correct