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PSY100H1 (1,804)


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University of Toronto St. George
Dan Dolderman

Psychologist seek to understand how people perceive, think, and act. Psychological science-study of mind, brain and behavior. Mind-mental activity Behavior-a wide variety of actions, from the subtle to the complex, that occur in all organisms. Schizophrenia-causes a person to have unusual thoughts Bipolar disorder-causes a person to have dramatic mood swings, from feeling extremely sad to feeling euphoric.  Da Vinci-Rene Descartes(dualism)-mind and body are separate yet intertwined radical. Neurotransmitters-chemicals that communicate messages between nerve cells 1900-decade of the brain The accumulating evidence indicates that the mind is adaptive in biological and cultural terms Adaptations-physical characteristics, skills, and abilities-that increased their chances of survival and reproduction and ensured that their genes were passed along to future generations.  Charles Darwin-on the origin of species-theory of evolution-natural selection: the process by which organisms’ random mutations that are adaptive are passed along and random mutations that hinder survival are not. Survival of the fittest-those better adapted to their environments will leave more offspring, those offspring will produce more offspring. Globalization-the flow of people, commodities, and financial instruments among all regions of the world. Westerners-analytic-emphasize their personal strengths Easterners-holistic-emphasize their need for self-improvement Interdisciplinary-share the goal of understanding how biological, individual, social and cultural factors influence our specific behaviors. Biological-physical body, neurochemical and genetic processes Individual-individual differences in personality and in the mental processes that affect how people perceive and know the world Social-how group context affect people’s ways of interacting and influencing each other Culture-explores how people’s thoughts, feelings, and actions are similar or differences across culture. P13 Seven themes of psychological science(P15)  Wilhelm wundt-first psychology lab and institute Introspection-a systematic examination of subjective mental experiences that requires people to inspect and report on the content of their thoughts.(subjective)  Edward titchener-structuralism-an approach to psychology based on the idea that conscious experience can be broken down into its basic underlying components or elements.  William James-structuralism-principles of psychology-stream of consciousness Functionalism-an approach to psychology concerned with the adaptive purpose, or function, of mind and behavior. Gesalt theory-a theory based on the idea that the whole of personal experience is different from simply the sum of its constituent elements.-reflects the perception of objects is subjective and dependent on context.  Sigmund Freud-unconscious-the mental processes that operate below the level of conscious awareness. Psychoanalysis-a method that attempts to bring the contents of the unconscious into conscious awareness so that conflicts con be revealed.  John B. Watson-behaviorism-an approach that emphasizes environmental effects on behavior. (nature/nurture)  George A. Miller-cognitive psychology-the study of how people think, learn and remember. The brain as the hardware that ran the mind, or mental processes, as the software Cognitive neuroscience-1990s-the study of neural mechanisms that underlie thought, learning and memory  Social psychology-the study of group dynamics in relation to psychological processes. Kurt Lewin-field theory-the interplay between people and their environments, such as social situations and group dynamics APPLY PSYCHOLOGICAL SICENCE Critical thinking-a systematic way of evaluating information to reach reasonable conclusions.—purposeful, reasoned, and goal directed The Mozart Effect CHAPTER 2 Scientific method-a systematic procedure of observing and measuring phenomena to answer questions about what happens, when it happens, what causes it, and why. -theory-hypothesis-research-support the theory-hypothesis -refute or fail to support the theory-theory Theory-a model of interconnected ideas and concepts that explains what is observed and makes predictions about future events. Hypothesis-a specific prediction of what should be observed in the world if a theory is correct Research-scientific pr
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