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Chapter 2

PSY100 Chapter 2 Research Methodology.docx

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Dan Dolderman

Chapter 2Research methodologyScientific methodsystematic planned in stepsThe scientific method depends on theories hypothesis and research 1 Theory explanation of how something works interconnected concepts that explains what observed makes predictions about future eventsTheory only good if backed up by proofs experiments 2 Hypotheses prediction of what should be observed if theory correct 3 Research dataSee if hypothesis is supported Unexpected findings can be valuableserendipity when researchers discover something important out of blueMore than one theory can explain human behaviour therefore no definite answer Replication more confident in theory if research repeated and results sametypes of studies in psychological research3 main types of studies descriptive co relational and experimentalAll research involves variables anything that can be measured and variedWe measure variables by quantifying themDescriptive studies involving observing and classifying behaviourDescriptive observational studies involves observing and classifying behaviour either by no intervention by observer naturalistic observation or w intervention by observer participant observation o 2 types of descriptive studies 1 Naturalistic observation observer remains separated from and makes no attempt to change situation 2 Participant observation researcher involved in situationAdv valuable in early stages of research when trying to determine whether a phenomenon exists takes place in real world settingDisadv errors can occur bc observer biasObservers presence can change the behaviour of people being studied Longitudinal Studies type of developmental design involves observing and classifying developmental changes that occur in same people over time either w no intervention by observer or wAdv provide info about effects of age on same people allowing researchers to see developmental changesDisadvexpensive time consuming lose participants over timeCross sectional studies involve observing and classifying developmental changes that occur in diff grps of people at same timeAdv faster and less expensive than longitudinal studiesDisadv unidentified variables may be involvedExperimenterexpectancy effect observer bias person doing the experiment is biased can change the behaviour of people being observedto prevent run blind studyunaware of studys hypothesisCorrelational designs examine how variables related in real world wout any attempt by researcher to alter themAdv rely on naturally occurring relationshipsMay take place in real world settingDisadv cannot be used to support casual relationships that one thing happened bc of otherCannot show direction of cause effect relationship bw variables directionality problemAn rdunidentified variable may be involved 3 variable problemDirectionality problem when researchers find a relationship bw 2 variables they cannot determine which variable may have caused changes in other variable rd 3 variable problem when experimenter cannot directly manipulate the independent variable and therefore cannot be confident that another unmeasured variable is not the actual cause of differences in dependent variable
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