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Chapter 9

PSY100 Chapter 9.docx

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Dan Dolderman

Chapter 9Motivation and Emotion INTRODUCTIONEarly thirties Eliot began suffering from severe headaches o Tumour the size of a small orange was growing behind his eyes o Tumour grew forcing his frontal lobes upward into the top of his skull o Surgeons removed the tumour as well as some of his frontal lobe tissueWas still intelligent with superb memoryCould not feel emotionsDamasios research team showed Eliot a series of disturbing pictures and observed no emotional reactionSabotaged his ability to make rational decisionsSuffered impairments in motivation and emotion HOW DOES MOTIVATION ACTIVATE DIRECT AND SUSTAIN BEHAVIOURMotivation is the area of psychological science concerned with the factors that energize or stimulate behaviourmost of the general theories of motivation emphasize four essential qualities of motivational states o motivational states are energizing they activate or arouse behavioursthey cause animals to do something o motivational states are directive they guide behaviours toward satisfying specific goals or specific needs o motivation states help people persist in their behaviour until goals are achieved or needs are satisfied o most theories agree that motives differ in strength depending on internal and external factors MULTIPLE FACTORS MOTIVATE BEHAVIOURA need is a state of deficiency which can be either biological eg water or social eg to be with other people o Needs lead to goaldirected behaviour o Failure to satisfy a need leads to psychosocial or physical impairment1940s Abraham Maslow proposed a need theory of motivation o Example of humanistic psychology viewing people as striving toward personal fulfillment o Humans are driven by many needs arranged into a need hierarchyPlaced survival needs hunger and thirst at the baseSafety protection freedom from threatsAcceptance and friendshipGood selfopinion accomplishments reputationLiving up to full potential achieving personal dreams and aspirations at the top o A state of selfactualization occurs when someone achieves his or her personal dreams and aspirations o Maslows hierarchy lacks empirical support DRIVES AND INCENTIVESNeeds create arousal which motivates behaviour o Arousal is used to describe physiological activation such as increased brain activity or increased autonomic responses quickened heart rate increased sweating or muscle tensionDrives are psychological states that encourage behaviours that satisfy needsfor biological states such as thirst or hunger basic drives help animals maintain equilibrium o Walter B Cannon coined the term homeostasis to describe the tendency for bodily functions to maintain equilibrium o Clark Hull proposed that when an animal is deprived of some need water sleep sex a drive increases in proportion to the amount of deprivationDrive state creates arousal which encourages you to do something to reduce the drive such as having a late snackIf behaviour reduces a drive it becomes a habit eg watching tv makes you forget your troublesan outcome that reinforces further tv watching Over time you might develop the habit of watching tv especially when you are stressed o Drive states push us to reduce arousal but we are also pulled toward certain things in our environment eating when youre not hungry staying up all night studying for an examIncentives are external objects or external goals rather than internal drives that motivate behaviours eg getting a good grade on the exam is an incentive for studying hard the sweet taste of pumpkin pie is an incentive for eating two pieces having money to pay your tuition is an incentive for working during the summerForces outside our conscious awareness can provide incentives for us to behave in particular ways eg smokers sometimes develop cravings for cigarettes after watching people smoke onscreen AROUSAL AND PERFORMANCEIf drives create arousal and motivate behaviour it seems to follow that more arousal will lead to more motivation and thus to better performance o YerkesDodson law dictates that performance increases with arousal up to an optimal point and then decreases with increasing arousal eg students perform best on exams when feeling moderate anxiety too little anxiety can make them inattentive or unmotivated too much can interfere with their thinking abilityo Motivated to seek an optimal level of arousal
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