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Chapter 12

PSY100 Chapter 12.docx

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Dan Dolderman

Chapter 12Social Psychology INTRODUCTIONAccording to geneva convetions prisoners of war must be treated with respect and dignity o Somalia in 1993 16 year old was tortured for hours and eventually murdered o According to social psychologists nothing typically is wrong with people such as the soldiers in Somalia and the guards of Abu GhraibThey are probably normal people caught up in overwhelming situations that shape their actionsAbsence of real authority promotion of aggression o Philip Zimbardo Prison Study HOW DO ATTITUDES GUIDE BEHAVIOURThe concept of attitudesour evaluations of objects of events or of ideasis central to social psychology o Shaped by social context and play important role in how we evaluate and interact with other people WE FORM ATTITUDES THROUGH EXPERIENCE AND SOCIALIZATIONDirect experience of our exposure to things provides information that shapes attitudesGreater exposure to an item and therefore greater familiarity with it cause people to have more positive attitudes about the item this process is known as the mere exposure effectAttitudes can be conditioned o Advertisements Are shaped through socialization BEHAVIOURS ARE CONSISTENT WITH STRONG ATTITUDESAttitudes can beo Explicit attitudes that people can report to other people o Implicit attitudes influences our feelings and behaviours at any unconscious levelAccess them from memory quickly eg riding a bicycleInvolve brain regions associated with implicit memory in general DISCREPANCIES LEAD TO DISSONANCECognitive dissonance occurs when there is a contradiction between two attitudes or between an attitude and a behaviour eg people experience cognitive dissonance when they smoke even though they know that smoking might kill them POSTDECISIONAL DISSONANCE
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