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Chapter 11

PSYCHChapter 11.docx

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Dan Dolderman

Chapter 11 Human DevelopmentBoth biological and environmental factors affect how one developsParental practices eg How a baby is positioned to sleep affects motor developmentPeople are products of BOTH nature and nurture thus the whole dichotomy of one being right is WRONGEmbryo baby starts developing organs fetus baby grows and looks like human baby able to survive outside wombHormones in the womb have effects on the baby Eg If mother is depressed or anxious can cause light weight babiesIn a study found that levels of testosterone are correlated with range of behaviours later in childhoodTeratogens agents that can cause abnormal development in the womb length and amount of exposure results to the deformity of the child Eg Fetal alcohol syndromeBabies have a variety of reflexes that aid survival eg Grasping reflex rooting reflex sucking As well have better hearing than visual when bornBrain growth has 2 important aspectso 1 Specific areas within the brain mature and become functional o 2 Regions of the brain learn to communicate together through synaptic connectionsmyelination of the wiring leads to faster signal transmission Thus hearing at birth is fully myelinated Synaptic Pruning use it or lose it effect Once connections between parts of the brain are established myelination makes it permanentThis causes the brain to grow over timeBrains plasticityCritical Period is the time in which connections between parts of the brain is most easily made and so learning is easiest then Critical period hypothesis states that environmental input is important but it is ultimately biology that determines when an organism needs to receive input to make us of itFrom early childhood children develop attachment an intimate connection between ppl that persist over time and gives the feeling of security and safetyThe fact that adults make extreme facial expressions and talk in high pitch allows the relationship between adult and baby intactAttachment is adaptive and those who experience it have higher chance of survival Hormone oxytocin is releasedAttachment occurs for both humans and other animals Process in which specie attaches self and follow the objectimprinting Eg Goose and man Harry Harlow did the experiment with the two mothers and the monkey Study ended up rejecting initial idea of motherasfood theory that established motherchild attachmentChildren display various attachment styles o 1 Secure attachment most common if attachment figure leaves the child is sad but once comes back is happy o 2 Avoidant attachment when attachment figure returns child shows ignorance towards figure This is a result of parents who are rejecting o 3 Anxiousambivalent attachment child clings to figure while trying to hit the person This is a result of parents who have inconsistent behavioursNew York longitudinal study found that child temperment and parents behaviours are the most important in determining social development Eg Moody ppl have hard time adapting to new situations Best parenting style takes into account own personality child temperament and situation Children learn through their senses Infants tend to look more at interesting stimuli and they look at new stimuli longer than old orienting reflexThis was tested through the preferential looking technique eg The black and white vs black and grey infant testFoxs experiment for binocular disparity Another study proved that visual acuity is mostlikely due to the development of visual cortex and development of cones in retinaAssimilation process through which new experience replaces old schemaAccommodation is process which schema is adapted or expanded to incorporate new experience Piaget stated that children go through 4 stages of development o 2Sensorimotor stage children acquire info about world through senses and that they react reflexively to objects which later develops schemas eg Suckingsucking various objects assimilation but not the same experience accommodation They experience object permanencekey accomplishmento7 preoperational Stage children have the ability to think about objects not in their immediate view have developed conceptual models of how the world worksSymbolic thinking begins not logic No understanding of law of conservation big and small glass with same amount of water story
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