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Chapter 7-10

PSY100 U of T Ch. 7-10,12,16

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University of Toronto St. George
Dan Dolderman

Psychology Chapter 7 Attention and MemorySeizures are uncontrolled random firings of groups of neurons and they spread across the brainTo grasp the meaning of spoken language a person needs to remember the words recently spokenMemory the nervous systems capacity to acquire and retain usable skills and knowledge allowing organisms to benefit from experience Attention the ability to direct something is ourselves to some information a the cost of paying less attention to other informationo Pay indicates that costs are associated with attending to some forms of info and not others Attention is limited when it is divided between too many things it suffers Anne Treisman we automatically identify primitive features such as color shape orientation and movement win an environmento Separate systems analyze objects different visual features o Parallel processing systems all process info at the same time and we can attend selectively to one feature by effectively blocking the further processing of the others If you are trying to find a friend in a crowd it would be fairly easy if she was wearing red and everyone else was wearing balck Searching for two features is serial and effortful o Serial need to look at the stimuli one at a time o Effortful takes longer requires more attention o Conjunction task stimulus you are looking for is made up of two simple features Cocktail party phenomenon selective attention can determine which conversation you listen to ie GossipShadowing participant is wearing headphones that deliver one message to one ear and another to the other person is asked to attend to one of the messages and shadow it by repeating aloud o Notice other sound but have no knowledge of what you have heard o Some important messagesinfo gets through the filter of your attention needs to be personally relevant to you name someones name that you know loud or obviously differentFilter theory selective nature of attention opens up for important info closes for irrelevant infoStimuli that evokes emotion will capture attention because it can provide a threat to environmentFaces capture attention because they provide important social info attractiveness moodAttention helps people focus on important aspects of environment Even when people cant repeat unattended message they still have processed its contents You can extract meaning for hearing something even if its not processed consciously Change blindness common failure to notice large changes in environments we cant attend to everything in the vast array of visual info availableo Shows how attention influences memory Change blindness blindness peoples unawareness that they often do not notice apparently obvious changes in their environments o Recognizing the limitations of our attention may help prevent us from misleading ourselves about our perceptions Memorys multiple processes can be thought of as operating overtime in 3 distinct phaseso 1 Encoding phase time of learning info is acquired and changed into a neural cod that the brain can use o 2 Storage phase retention of encoded representations over time that corresponds to some change in the nervous system that registers the event can last a fraction of a second or a lifetime Modal memory model 3 stage memory system that involves sensory memory short term memory and long term memorySensory memory temporary lasting a fraction of a second closely tied to the sensory systemso Occurs when light sound odor taste or tactile impression leaves a vanishing trace on nervous system for a fraction of a secondo Sperling concluded that visual memory persisted for about 13 of a second after which sensory memory trace faded progressively until it was goneo Allows us to view the world in a continuous stream Short term memory STM limited capacity holds info in awareness for brief period Working memory WM active processing system that keeps different types of info available for current use o Words processing in WM are processed by how they sound rather than by how they look or meanChunking organizing info into meaningful units to make it easier to remember Four components to working memory central executive phonological loop visuospatial sketchpad episodic buffero Phonological loop speech words numbers o Episodic buffer integrated info about oneselfo Visuospatial sketchpad visual spatial material Long term memory LTM relatively permanent storage of info based on meaning Serial position effect ability to recall items from a list depends on order of presentation with items presented first and last in the list remembered better than those in the middleo Primacy effect and recency effecto Relies on the distinction between WM and LTM words studied most are earlier in the listLTM words at the endWMInfo enters permanent storage through rehearsal Distributed practice is better than mass practice crammingWe attend just enough attention and memory function for the task at hand and lose info that seems irrelevant People remember things critical for survival Implicit memory unconscious memory o Procedural memory involves motor skills behavioral habits they are automatic unconscious Explicit memory processes involved when people remember specific infoo Episodic memory memory for ones personal past experiences o Semantic memory memory for knowledge about the worldDeclarative memory knowledge can be declared cognitive info retrieved from explicit memory We are often unaware of influences on how we think or feel Prospective memory remembering to do something at sometime in the future involves automatic and controlled processes o Retrieval cues need something to jog your memory why sticky notes are so popularWe remember things because of mental representation memories are stored representations Info is stored in networks of neurons in brainFergus Craik and Robert Lockhart U of T The more deeply a memory is encoded the more meaning that memory has and the better it is remembered o Level of processing model o Different rehearsal differential encoding Maintenance rehearsal repeating item over and over Elaborative rehearsal encodes info in meaningful way thinks about the item conceptually decide if it refers to oneselfo Elaborate on basic info by linking it to knowledge from LTMSchema hypothetical cognitive structure that helps us perceive organize process and use info in LTM o Use to construct new memories by filling in holes with existing memories overlook inconsistent info interpret meaning based on past experiences Schemas can lead to bias encoding cultureo Frederic Barlett asked British people to listen to Native folk tale and repeat the tale British people altered the story so it made sense with their cultureo Laundry example pg 312Info is stored in an association networksEach unit of a network node each node is connected to other nodesActivating one node increases the likelihood that closely associated nodes will also be activated closer the nodes the stronger the association will be In semantic network similar concepts are connected through their associationsRetrieval of some items led to enhanced memory for related items even when participants were told to forget those itemso When one is reminded of a memory that they rather avoid other parts of the event will be reactivated maybe leading to greater distress
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