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Chapter 2

Chapter 2.docx

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Dan Dolderman

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Chapter 2 What is scientific inquiryScientific method A systematic procedure of observing and measuring phenomena to answer questions about what happens when it happens what causes it and whyThe scientific method depends on theories hypotheses and researchTheory An explanation or a model of how something in the world works consisting of interconnected ideas and conceptsHypothesis A specific prediction of what should be observed in the world if a theory is correctResearch Scientific process that involves the systematic and careful collection of dataGood theoriesshould generate hypothesesUnexpected findings can be valuableSerendipity When researchers unexpectedly discover something importantWhat are the types of studies in psychological researchThree main types o designs descriptive correlational and experimentalDiffer in the extent to which the researcher has control over the variables in the studyVariable Something in the world that can be measured and that can varyOperational definitions identifying and quantifying variables so they can be measuredDescriptive studies involve observing and classifying behaviorObservational studies Involve observing and noting behavior to analyze it objectivelyTwo basic typesNaturalistic observation A passive descriptive study in which observers do not change or alter ongoing behaviorParticipant observation A type of descriptive study in which the researcher is actively involved in the situationAdvantagesEspecially valuable in the early stages of research when trying to determine whether a phenomenon exists takes place in a realworld settingDisadvantagesErrors in observation can occur because of an observers expectations Observers presence can change the behavior being witnessedLogitudinal studies Involve observing and classifying developmental changes that occur in the same people over time either with no intervention by the observer or with intervention by the observer
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