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Chapter 7

Chapter 7 - Attention and memory.pdf

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Dan Dolderman

Chapter 7 Attention and memory Sunday March 18 2012814 PMMemoryThe nervous system capacity to acquire and retain usable skills and knowledgeHow Does Attention Determine What Is RememberedVisual Attention is Selective and SerialParallel A way to process information from different visual features at the same time by processingfocusing on targets over distractors It allows us to take attention to the most primitive objects first a colour that stands out for exampleConjunction Seeking two simple features of a stimulus taskAuditory Attention Allows Selective ListeningAttention is limited and it is hard to perform two tasks at the same time especially if they rely on the same mechanisms What happens when you suddenly see the brake lights of the cars ahead of you You need to stop talking and singing and direct your attention to the task of driving which suddenly becomes more difficult and requires your utmost attention Cocktail party You are in a midst of stimulus and suddenly you can be aware of a stimulus that phenomenonis related to youinterests youShadowingParticipants wears headphones that deliver one message to one ear and a different message to the other The person is asked to attend to one of the two messages and shadow it by repeating it aloud Selective Attention Can Operate at Multiple Stages of Processing Filter theoryThe selective nature of attention People have a limited capacity for sensory information and thus screen incoming information letting in only the most important Example faces are a good example of stimuli that capture attention because they provide important social information such as whether someone is a potential mate As an adaptive system attention helps people focus on important objects in their environments ExampleSeveral selective listening studies have found that even when participants cannot repeat an unattended message they still have processed its contents Change We are often blind to large changes in our environments because we cannot blindnessattend to everything in the vast array of visual information variable What Are the Basic Stages of MemoryThere are three distinct phases of memory operating over timeEncoding phaseThe processing of information so that it can be storedStorage phaseThe retention of encoded representations over time that corresponds to some change in the nervous system that registers the eventRetrieval stageThe act of recalling or remembering stored information to use itPsychological scientists often describe memory more specifically as a three part system Modal memory The three stage memory system that involves sensory memory shortterm modelmemory and longterm memory Sensor memoryMemory for sensory information that is stored briefly close to its original sensory form Page 1
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