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Chapter 15

Chapter 15 - Treatment of Psychological disorders.pdf

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University of Toronto St. George
Dan Dolderman

Chapter 15 Treatment of Psychological disordersHow Are Psychological Disorders TreatedPsychotherapyThe genetic name given to formal psychological treatmentBiological therapiesTreatment based on medical approaches to illness and to diseaseAll forms of psychotherapy involve interactions between practitioner and client aimed at helping the client understand his or her symptoms and problems and providing solutions for them Psychopharmacology is the use of medications that affect brain or body functions Gaining a better understanding of the etiology of a mental disorder does not always provide further insights into how best to treat it The best available treatment is based on behavioural not biological principles Psychotherapy Is Based on Psychological PrinciplesOne factor known to affect the outcome of therapy is the relationship between the therapist and the client in part because a good relationship can foster an expectation of receiving help A good relationship with a service provider is important for any aspect of physical or mental health Psychodynamic Therapy Focuses on InsightPsychoanalysis was pioneered by physician Josef Breuer In early forms of psychoanalysis the client would lie on a couch while a therapist sat out of view to reduce the clients inhibitions and allow freer access to unconscious thought process Techniques of treatment included free association where the client would say whatever came to mind and dream analysis in which the therapist would interpret the hidden meaning of the clients dreams The goal of psychoanalysis is to raise awareness to the unconscious processes and how its affecting daily functioning Some of Freuds ideas have since been reformulate Psychodynamic therapy is then adapted to help people understand why they are distressed by examining their needs defenses and motives The use of psychodynamic therapy has become increasingly controversial and it is expensive and time consuming may span over years A new approach to psychodynamic therapy consists of offering few sessions and focusing more on current relationships than on early childhood experiences Humanistic Therapies Focus on the whole PersonClientcentered An empathic approach to therapy it encourages personal growth through therapygreater self understandingThis was developed by Carl Rogers and it creates a safe and comforting setting for clients to access their true feelings Therapists strive to be empathic and to accept the client through unconditional positive regard Instead of directing behaviour or passing judgement the therapist helps the client focus on subjective experience by using reflective listening where the therapist repeats the concerns to help clarify the matter Motivational interviewing has been proven valuable for drug and alcohol abuse CognitiveBehavioural Therapy targets Thoughts and BehavioursCognitive therapyTreatment based on idea that distorted thoughts produce maladaptive behaviours and emotionsCognitive A therapy that strives to help patients recognize maladaptive thought restructuringpatterns and replace them with ways of viewing the world that are more in tune with realitySocial skills trainingan effective way to elicit desire about behaviour The first step is often modeling in which the therapist acts out an appropriate behaviour Client is encouraged to imitate this behaviour rehearse it in therapy and later apply to learned behaviour to realworld situations Rationalemotive when the therapist acts as teachers who explain and demonstrate more therapy adaptive ways of thinking and behavingPsychological Science Page 1
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