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Chapter 2

Ch.2 - Research Methodology.docx

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Dan Dolderman

CHAPTER 2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY WHAT IS SCIENTIFIC ENQUIRY way of finding anwers to empirical s s that can be answered by observing the world and measuring aspects of itScientific method is useda systematic procedure of observing and measuring phenomena to answer s about what happens when it happens what causes it and why o Depends on 1theory 2hypothesis 3researchTheorymodel of interconnected ideasconcepts that explains what is observed and makes predictions about future events Good theories produce a wide variety of testable hypothesisHypothesisspecific prediction of what should be observed in the world if a theory is correct data objective observationsmeasurementsResearchscientific process that involves the systematic and careful collectiono Replication repetition of an experiment to confirm the results Increases confidence in findings WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF STUDIES IN PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCHOnce researcher has defined a hypothesis the next issue to address is the type of study design to be used1 descriptive 2correlational 3experimental o Descriptiveobservational studies involes observing and noting behaviorNaturalistic observation where observers dont changealter ongoing behaviorParticipant observation type of descriptive study in which the researcher is actively involved in the situationAdvantages valuable at early stages of research when theyre simply trying to see whether a phenomenon existsLongitudinal studies one ype of developmental design that involves observing and classifying devtal changes that occur in the same ppl over time either w no intervention by the observer or w intervention by the observer Cross sectional studies involve observing and classifying devtal changes that occur in diff groups of ppl at the same time All of these involves variables anything that can be measured and that can varymanipulated by experimenterObserver bias systematic errors in observation that occur bc of an observers expectationExperimenter expectancy effect actual change in the behavior of pplanimals being observed that is due to observer bias o Correlational designs examine how variables are relatedCorrelational study a research method that examines how variables are naturally related in the real world wout any attempt by the researcher to alter them
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