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Chapter 12

ch.12 - Social Psychology.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Dan Dolderman

CH12SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY INTROAbu Ghraib jail abuseStandford Prison study HOW DO ATTITUDES GUIDE BEHAVIORAttitudes the evaluation of objects events or ideas Central to social psychology Shaped by social context and play imp Role in how we evaluate and interact w other pplWe Form Attitudes through Experience and Socialization o Direct experience of or exposure to things provides info that shapes attitudesIn gral ppl develop negative attitudes about new objectsquickly than they developattitudesTypically thea person is exposed to something the more he or she tends to like itMere exposure effect process where greater exposure to the item and thereforefamiliarity with it causes ppl to have moreattitudes about the item o Attitudes can be conditioned advertisers often use classical conditioningCan also be conditioned through operant conditioningcheck distinction bw classical and operant conditioningAlso shaped through socializationSoattitudes can be shaped by classical and operant conditioning and socializationBehaviors are Consistent w Strong AttitudesIn gral the stronger andpersonally relevant the attitude thelikely it will predict behavior be consistent over time and be resistant to changeThespecific the attitude the more predictive it isThose formed through direct experience also tend to predict behavior betterAttitude accessibility ease w which a person can retrieve memories related to an attitude Predicts behavior consistent w the attitudeExplicit attitudes attitudes that ppl can reportImplicit attitudes attitudes that influence our feelings and behavioran unconscious level Also revealed in ppls behaviorImplicit Association Test rxn time test that can identify implicit attitudes Measures how quickly we associate concepts or objects worwords measure of racismDiscrepancies Lead to Dissonance o Cognitive dissonance an uncomfortable mental state due to conflicts bw attitudes or bw attitudes and behavior Theory proposed by Leon FestingerOne of most important in experimental social psychologyEx Smoking when they know it might killAssumption that dissonance causes anxiety and tension and therofre motivates ppl to reduce the dissonance and relieve displeasureGrally pplreduce dissonance by chanign their attitudes or behaviors they sometimes also rationalize or trivialize the discrepancies o Post decisional dissonancemotivates the person to focus on one schoosthe chosen schools aspects and the other schools negative aspectsAccording to cognitive dissonance theory holdingattitudes about 2 options but having to choose 1 of them causes dissonance o Attitude change1 way to get ppl to change their attitudes is to change their behaviors first using as few incentives as possibleExpparticipants who were paid 1 rated the taskfavorably than those who had been paid 20 o Justifying Efforthazing initiation ritesResearch in pg 540 shows that when ppl put themselves through pain embarrassment or discomfort to join a group they experience adeal of dissonancethey resolve the dissonance by inflating the importance of the group and their commitment to itAttitudes can be changed through persuasion o Persuasion the active and conscioius effort to change attitudes through the transmission of a message Leads to attitude change in 2 ways according to the elaboration likelihood model by Petty and CaciopposElaboration likelihood model a theory of how persuasive messages lead to attitude changes1 central route ppl pay attention to arguments consider all the info and use rational cog Processes leads to strong attitudes that last over time and are resistant to changeo Used when ppl are motivated to consider info carefully2 peripheral route ppl minimally process the message which leads to moreimpulsive action as when a person decides to purchase a product bc a celebrity has endorsed it o Used when ppl arent motivatedCues that influence a messages persuasivenssSource who delivers the messageContent what the message saysReceiver who processes the message
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