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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Biological Foundations.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100H1
Professor
Dan Dolderman
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 3 Biological FoundationsIntroduction Sythesia heredityModern technology and understanding allows for manipulation of genesWhat is the genetic basis of psychological scienceGenes are not strictly a determinant of behavior but the environment which activates genes is major as that is how some genes are expressed 2001human genome projectGenome is master blueprint that provides instruction to grow everything Genome provides options for possible things to happen environment activatesWithin each cell are 23 chromosomes structures made of genesGene is segment responsible for making a protein which carries out a task Environment determines when and which proteins are made Think of melanist mothAs found in genome proj humans dont have most of genes but we do have more way in expressing genesComparing of genomes between people helps identify responsible genes for different things Heredity Involves passing on genes through reproductiongregor mendel31 ratio of dominant over recessive when crossing two heterozygotes Genotype and Phenotype Gentype is the genetic constitution why the phenotypegenetic and environmental influence is the physical expression of the genotype but not all genes are expressed as seen in the recessive nature of genescould have same phenotype but different genotype AA and Ab same phenotype Polygenic effectsSomething influenced by many genes like height or skin color there many shades Genotypic variation results from sex8 million combination on 23 chromosomeszygote a fertilized cell grows through cell divisions Recessive genes stay in population as they prove not to be lethal but dominant do get removed as people die off witht themGenes affect Behaviorabilities and psychological traits determined by interactions of genes with enivrioment Behavioral geneticsnature nurture comes up Behavioral genetics methodlooking at siblings behavioral genetics uses two method to determine degree to which genes are inherited 1 twin studiescompares similarities between types of twins to determine genetic basis of specific traitsMonozygotic twins identical twins result from one zygote dividing in two and therefore twins are genetically identical Mutations and environment make phenotype a little differentDizygotic twins nonidenticle twins result from two separately fertilized eggs simultaneously resulting in two regular children2 adoption studiesCompares similarities between biological relatives and adapted relativesAdopted will share same environment but will have different genesBeing raised in same home little influence on personOne method to study is comparing monozygotic twins who live in same house to those who dontResults showed that living in same house irrelevant but that monozygotes were similar nonethelessTwins being raised in same house may even lead to differences as parents stress individuality to them Understanding heritability Heredity is the transmission of characteristic from parents to offspring by means of genes Heritability on the other hand is a statistical estimate of the genetic proportion of the variation of some trait It depends on variation the measure of overall difference among people for a certain trait Refers to populations not individuals Heritability of 6 means 60 of people have trait in population Social and environments contexts influence genetic expressionnew zealender study showed that kids with low levels of MOA responded to abuse as children in a manner which resulted in criminalitynot all children react to same in environment in same wasy as each other Genetic expression can be modified insertion manipulation of genes possible Comparison between control and and experiment grup possible thenknockout method used to incapacitate genes to show effects One knockout could lead to multiple effects House does the nervous system work Neuronsbasic unit of nervous system are cells that specialize in communicationdiffer from normal cell in that they are exciteable through electrical impulses and that they can communicate with each other through chemical signals3 functions 1reception getting info from other neurons 2 conduction integrating signals 3 transmission passing signals on
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