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Chapter 10

PSY100 Psychological Science (3rd Ed.) Textbook Notes Chapter 10

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Alison Luby

CHAPTER 10HEALTH AND WELLBEINGPsychosocial Factors on HealthHealth Psychology the field of psychological science concerned w the events that affect physical wellbeing Wellbeing a positive state that includes striving for optimal health and life satisfactionBiopsychosocial Model of Health integrates the effects of biological behavioral and social factors on health and illnessPsychological factors stress health beliefs biological characteristics genes exposure to germs and social conditions culture family social supportBehavior and Death ndppl most likely to die from causes that stem from their own behaviors eg heart disease is 2 leading cause of death in Canada accidents are a leading cause of death but many accidents are avoidable teens and young adults most deaths from accidents then suicide then cancer then homicidePlacebos Placebo Effect drugtreatment unreleated to problem of person who receives it may make recipient feel better bc person believes the drugtreatment is effective placebos can reduce pain perception when ppl believe they will drugs that make pain relievers ineffective also make placebo for the pain relieve ineffective brain imaging shows that when ppl have positive expectations about placebo neural processes involved in responding to it are the same ones activated in response to biologically active treatmentBelief that medication will work psychological affects the body similar to real treatment biologicalStress Stress a pattern of behavioral psychological and physiological responses to events that matchexceed an organisms abilities to respondEustressthe stress of positive events eg going to universityDistress Duressthe stress of negative events eg trapped in traffic when late Stressor environmental eventstimulus that threatens an organism elicits coping response try to escape avoid minimize aversive stimulusMajor Life Stressorsstrain central areas of ppls lives eg parents having a first childDaily Hasslesdaytoday irritations eg waiting in line combined effect can be comparable to effects of major life stressorsPhysiological Components of Stress HypothalamicPituitaryAdrenal HPA Axis biological system responsible for the stress responseStress eventbrainhypothalamus releases chemical messengerspituitary gland releases hormonesadrenal glands release cortisolcauses feelings we have when we are stressed excessive stress disrupts working memory chronic stress associated w memory impairments cortisol damages neurons in brain regions including hippocampus FightOrFlight Response physiological preparedness of animals to deal w danger includes increase heart rate deepening respiration dilation of pupils inhibition of gastric secretions changes in autonomic systemGeneralizability criticized bc mostly malesmale animals used as research participants TendandBefriend Response females tendency to protect and care for their offspring and form social alliances rather than fleeflight in response to threatPossible biological basis oxytocin hormone important for mothers in bonding to newborns is produced in hypothalamus and released into bloodstream through pituitary gland high levels of oxytocin during socially stressful situations important especially in womens stress responseWhen estrogen levels are high in women before menopause they have reduced responses to stressThe General Adaptation Syndrome The General Adaptation Syndrome a consistent pattern of responses to stress that consists of three stages alarm resistance and exhaustionAlarm emergency reaction prepares body to fightflee
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