Textbook Notes (368,530)
Canada (161,958)
Psychology (2,981)
PSY100H1 (1,831)
Chapter 11

PSY100 Psychological Science (3rd Ed.) Textbook Notes Chapter 11

7 Pages
135 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100H1
Professor
Alison Luby
Semester
Fall

Description
CHAPTER 11 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Child Development -human physical development has consistent pattern (e.g. baby learns to walk w/o teaching); suggests genes set the pace and order of development -environment affects development: children in diff cultures reach developmental milestones at different paces Healthy children in Uganda walk by 10 months; French children walk by 15 months; infants who sleep on their backs crawl much later than those who sleep on stomach Physical Development -conception zygote (first cell of new life) embryo (at two weeks) fetus (at two months) -basic brain areas form by week 4 in prenatal development; by 7 month, fetus has working nervous system -Teratogens: environmental agents ttht harm the embryo/fetus; e.g. drugs, alcohol, bacteria, chemicals Exposure to teratogen at 4 week can interfere w/ basic brain structures Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS): consumption of alcohol during pregnancy leads to behavioral, physical, cognitive impairments in baby Brain Development -newborns possess sensory stimuli; infant prefer sweet tastes, have acute sense of smell (can distinguish mothers milk vs. strangers milk); startled by loud sounds and turn heads towards source; visual acuity of 20-30cm -exhibit grasping reflex and rooting reflex (turning and sucking that infants engage in when nipple/similar object touches area near their mouths) -brain circuits mature through myelination, which begins on spinal cord during 1 trimester then on brains neurons in 2 nd trimester (increases speed at which signals are transmitted) -myelinated axons form synapses w/ other neurons; then adopts use it or lose it policy: -Synaptic Pruning: process whereby the synaptic connections in the brain that are frequently used are preserved and those that are not are lost Synaptic density highest in visual cortex at age 1&2, in auditory cortex at age 3, prefrontal cortex at age 6; after adolescence, density remains approx. constant in the three brain areas Highest levels of density thought of as the times when brain is most plastic (able to change) -human brain grows due to myelination and to new synaptic connections among neurons (80% of adult brain size by age 4); malnourished children have less myelination, undermining brain development -Critical Periods: biologically determined time periods for the development of certain skills -Sensitive Periods: biologically determined time periods when specific skills develop most easily Attachment -at 4-6 weeks, infants display first social smile; enhances feelings of love b/w caregiver and child; leads to attachment -Attachment: strong emotional connection that persists over time and across circumstances; motivates infants and caregivers to stay in close contact; attachment is adaptive (higher chance of survival through adult protection) Attachment in Other Species -within 18 hours of hatching, birds will attachment themselves to adult and follow them: known as imprinting -Freudians believed mother as source of libidinal pleasures (life, emotional, sexual); behaviorists saw mother was result of secondary reinforcement, provider of food -Study of Harlows Monkeys and Mothers: infant rhesus monkeys were put into cage w/ one mother than resembled a monkey and another that was made of wire but gave milk; monkeys clung to cloth mother for comfort in times of threat Established the importance of contact comfort in social development Attachment Style -infants display separation anxiety (distressed when they are separated from attachment figures) when they start to crawl at 8-12 months -Strange-Situation Test: procedure involves eight structures episodes in laboratory playroom with sequence of separations and reunions b/w child and caregiver with unfamiliar adult in the room; gives three types of attachment Secure Attachment: majority of children; readily comforted when caregiver returns after brief separation Avoidant Attachment: infant ignore their caregiver when he/she returns after brief separation Anxious-Ambivalent Attachment: infants become extremely upset when caregiver leaves but reject caregiver when he/she returns Disorganized Attachment: infants give mixed responses when caregiver leaves and returns; show inconsistent/contradictory behaviors (e.g. smiling at caregiver but then displaying fear/avoidance) -children w/ behavioral problems are more likely to be anxious-ambivalent/avoidant attached; caregivers personality contributes to childs attachment style -hormone oxytocin related to caregiver/infant attachment; infant sucking triggers release of oxytocin in mother, moves milk in the milk ducts so the mother can nurse How Children Perceive Their Worlds Infant-Research Techniques -Preferential-Looking Technique: infant tend to look longer at stimuli that interest them; if infant looks longer at one of the things shown to them, it shows that infant can distinguish b/w the things and finds one interesting -Orienting Reflex: humans tend to pay more attention to new stimuli than familiar/habituated stimuli; show infant a stimulus until he is habituated then measure if infant reacts to change in stimulus based on how long they look at it Vision -infants visual acuity for distant objects is poor when first born but reach adult levels in one year; ability to perceive depth develops b/w 3 6 months of age (using experiment for depth perception using binocular disparity) Auditory
More Less

Related notes for PSY100H1

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit