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Psychology (2,948)
PSY100H1 (1,804)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1

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University of Toronto St. George
Michael Inzlicht

Key Terms psychological The study of mind, brain, and behaviour. science evolutionary In psychological science, a theory that emphasizes the inherited, adaptive value of theory behaviour and mental activity throughout the entire history of a species. natural Darwins theory that those who inherit characteristics that help them adapt to selection their particular environment have a selective advantage over those who do not. adaptations In evolutionary theory, the physical characteristics, skills, or abilities that increase the chances of reproduction or survival and are therefore likely to be. culture The beliefs, values, rules, and customs that exist within a group of people who share a common language and environment and that are transmitted through learning from one generation to the next. nature- The arguments concerning whether psychological characteristics are biologically nurture innate or acquired through education, experience, and culture. debate mind-body A fundamental psychological issue that considers whether mind and body are problem separate and distinct or whether the mind is simply the subjective experience of the physical brain. dualism The philosophical idea that the mind exists separately from the physical body. Introspection A systematic examination of subjective mental experiences that requires people to inspect and report on the content of their thoughts. structuralism An approach to psychology based on the idea that conscious experience can be broken down into its basic underlying components or elements. stream of A phrase coined by William James to describe ones continuous series of ever- consciousnes changing thoughts. s functionalism An approach to psychology concerned with the adaptive purpose, or function, of mind and behaviour. Gestalt A theory based on the idea that the whole of personal experience is much greater theory than simply the sum of its constituent elements. unconscious A term that identifies mental processes that operate below the level of conscious awareness. psychoanalys A method developed by Sigmund Freud that attempts to bring the contents of the is unconscious into conscious awareness so that conflicts can be revealed. www.notesolution.com
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