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Chapter 9

Chapter 9 notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Michael Inzlicht

Chapter 9: Motivation Motivation is the area of psychological science that studies factors that energize, direct, stimulate or sustain behaviour o How behaviour is initiated, directed and sustained How Does Motivation Activate, Direct, and Sustain Behaviour? Where do needs come from? Need, Drives and Arousal Motivate Behaviour o A need is a state of deficiency, such as lack of air or food. What do we need to stay alive? We also need social, needs to have a satisfying live o Abraham Maslow created a need hierarchy Survival needs, are lowest Personal growth, are highest Humanistic psychology, people are striving towards personal fulfillment Self-actualization, is when someone achieves their personal dreams and aspirations There are some discrepancies with this; some people starve to show that they can hope for the best. Drives o Drives are psychological states activated to satisfy needs i.e. level of sex drive, being driven to succeed o Arousal, motivates behaviours that will satisfy these needs (drive) A term used to describe psychological activation, such as increased brain activity, autonomic responses, swearing or muscle tension o For biological states, we have to maintain homeostasis with a negative feedback system o Drive increases with an amount of deprivation, performance reduces drive o Incentives are external stimuli that motivate behaviours (as opposed to internal drives) Arousal and Performance o Yerkes-Dodsons law states that performance increases with arousal until an optimal point, after which arousal interferes with performance www.notesolution.comPleasure Can Motivate Adaptive Behaviours o Sigmund Freud stated the pleasure principle, which tells organism to seek pleasure and avoid pain This idea is central to many themes of motivation o Behaviours with pleasure are associated with survival and reproduction Behaviours associated with pain that interfere with survival and reproduction i.e. having sweet treats, as opposed to bitter treats (poison) Some Behaviours Are Motivated for Their Own Sake o Extrinsic motivation is the motivation to perform an activity because of the external goals toward which that activity is directed i.e. winning a trophy, getting a pay check o Intrinsic motivation is the motivation to perform an activity because of the value or pleasure associated with that activity, rather than for an apparent biological goal or purpose the value or pleasure of an activity, listening to music, liking to play soccer Curiosity and Play Curiosity is the mental state that leads to intrinsically motivated behaviour o Seeking out new situation and games, adventures o Children become fascinated of new objects, but moving on when interest is gone Play lets us learn about objects in the environment. o Helps us with knowledge In one task children were given 2 sticks to retrieve a piece of chalk Children who were given the solution, and exposed to the items beforehand performed more well Creativity and Problem Solving Intrinsically motivated behaviour allow people to express creativity o Creativity is the tendency to generate ideas or alternatives that may be useful in solving problems, communication and entertaining ourselves and others o Applying existing ideas to new problems www.notesolution.com
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