www.notesolution.com www.notesolution.com Theories & Concepts
Selective Attention Theory
N Cocktail party phenomenon: Ability to focus on a single conversation in the midst of a
chaotic cocktail party.
N Attention selection is not an all or none process that eliminates unattended stimuli
N Filter theory: A Theory that people have a limited capacity for sensory information and thus
a screen of incoming information, letting in only the most important.
N Early selection theory: A Theory that we can choose the stimuli to which we attend before
we process their basic features.
N Late selection theory: A theory that people take in the sensory information, process it, and
then select which aspects of the stimuli should be attended after processing.
Automatic Recognition Theory
N Different visual features of objects are analyzed by different systems
N Time it takes to find target increases linearly with the number of distractions (more
distractions = more time to analyze)
N Attention helps integrate features so that we can correctly perceive objects faster
N In order for us to experience pain, pain receptors must be activated an LµŒo^2š_]L
the spinal cord must allow these signals through to the brain.
from the pain receptor (ex. Rubbing leg when bruised, causing it to not be as painful
N One region of the midbrain influences this gate, and endorphins are believed to act on this
region to block pain.
N Detecting a stimulus requires making a judgment about its presence or absence based on
a subjective interpretation of ambiguous information.
N People sometimes believed they saw a weak stimulus when there was none, and sometimes
failed to detect a stimulus that was presented.
N False alarm J ZÇ]L2šZŒÁZZ]2LoÁZLšZŒÁZL[š7Z]šJ correctly detecting signal,
miss J failing to detect signal that was present, correct rejection J saying that there was no
www.notesolution.com What Versus Where Concept
N Ventral Stream: Specialized for object perception so it tells you WHAT an object is
N Dorsal Stream: Specializes in spatial perception so it tells you WHERE an object is
Job of taste/gestation J to keep poison out and to let food in
Stimuli for taste are chemical substances in food. Taste receptors are part of taste buds that
are on the toungue/mouth. Microvilli come into contact w/ saliva and send electrical signals
to brainstem region called medulla and from there to thalamus and cortex, producing
sensation of taste.
Sense of smell/olfaction involves sensing chemicals from outside body. Odorous particles
pass into nose and upper and back portions of nasal cavity. They come into contact w/ the
olfactory epithelium, a layer of tissue embedded w/ smell receptors. The particles dissolve
in solution surrounding the epithelium and cause reaction that triggers chemical receptors.
These nerve impulses convey information to olfactory bulb just below frontal lobes. Smell
bypasses thalamus. Olfactory stimuli can evoke powerful emotions & memories.
Pheromones are chemicals released by animals that trigger physiological or behavioural
reactions in others.
Haptic/touch sense J conveys sensations of pain, temp. and pressure. Anything that makes
contact w/ skin provides tactile stimulation. Haptic receptors terminate outer layer of skin.
Their lonhg axons enter the central nervous system by way of spinal or cranial nerves. Some
of the receptors J nerve fibres at the base of hair follicles that respond to hair movement.
Others Jcapsules in skin that respond to vibration, sudden movements and steady pressure.
Pain is part of a warning system that stops you from continuing activities that may harm
you. Two kinds of nerve fibers have been identified for pain: fast fibers for sharp, immediate
pain, and slow fibers for chronic pain. Distinction b/w two fibers is the myelination of their
axons that travel from pain receptors to spinal cord.
Gate control theory J ÁÆ‰Œ]L
through spinal c