Textbook Notes (369,035)
Canada (162,359)
Psychology (2,981)
PSY100H1 (1,831)
Chapter 8

Chapter 8 Notes

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Michael Inzlicht

Dread risks J although born of uncommon events, can have a profound impact on reasoning and decision making J example J fear of flying after 911 Cognition J mental activity such as thinking or representing information Analogical representations - have some characteristics of (and are therefore analogous to) actual objects, such as maps reflecting the physical layout of geography. Symbolic representations J most often are words or ideas, such as knowing what the word violin stands for a musical object. Visual imagery is associated with activity in perception-related areas of the brain. These areas are likely responsible for providing the spatial aspects, such as size and shape, of analogical visual imagery. When we retrieve information from memory, as when we recall a picture we recently saw in a LZ7ZZL]}L}Z] ]L}K]L[ZoooZZZL]}LZZ]L our brain the first time we saw the picture. Grouping things together based on shared properties, known as categorization, reduces the amount of knowledge we must hold in memory and is therefore an effective way of thinking. Concept refers to a class or category that includes some number of individuals or subtypes. Concepts can also be mental representatives of categories such as a musical instruments, or fruits, or bachelors. Defining attribute model: the idea that a concept is characterized by a list of features that is necessary to determine if an object is a member of a category. (Bachelor J an unmarried male) Defining attribute model suggests that a category is on an all-or-none basis, but in reality we often make exceptions in our categorizations, letting members into groups even f they do not have all the attributes or excluding them even if they have all the attributes. Second, the defining attribute model suggests that all attributes of a category are equally salient in terms of defining the given category. Research demonstrates not only that some attributes are more important for defining membership than others. Model posits that all members of a category are of equal membership J no one is a better fit than any other. Prototype models - within each category, some members of a particular category are more representative or prototypical of that category than other members. A man in his 20s who dates a lot is more prototypical of a bachelor than a 16 year old male. Although prototype models allow for some additional flexibility, they do not always provide a clear indication of what the prototype really is. www.notesolution.com
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