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Chapter 9

Chapter 9 Notes

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Michael Inzlicht

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Chapter 9 J Motivation Motivation refers to factors that energize, direct, or sustain behaviour A need is a state of deficiency such as lack of air or food ,Zo}[Zhierarchy of needs example of humanistic psychology in which ppl are viewed as striving toward personal fulfillment; ,Zo}[ZL2KL}LZ]LZ] ZZ] Z]oLZo}Z and personal growth needs are highest in terms of ultimate priority Needs hierarchy: 1. Physiological 2. Safety 3. Belonging and Love 4. Esteem 5. Self- actualization ZZ]Z Z]ZL}L[ZZ}LoKZlZZZL]L Drive is a psych state that motivates an organism to satisfy its needs (create arousal) eg. Driven to succeed like Oprah Arousal describes psych activation such as increased brain activity, autonomic responses, and sweating or muscle tension Homeostasis is the tendency for bodily functions to maintain equilibrium (negative feedback model) set point is a hypothetical state that indicates homeostasis Clark Hull created behavioural model of drive reduction; when an animal is deprived of some need, a specific drive increases in proportion to the amount of deprivation; the drive state creates arousal which activates behaviours until performing one of them reduces the drive Over time if behaviour consistently reduces a drive, it becomes a habit; the likelihood that the behaviour will occur is due to both drive and habit Incentives are external objects (rather than internal drives) that motivate behaviour Yerkes-Dodson law a psych principle that dictates that behavioural efficiency increases with arousal up to an optimum point, after which it decreases with increasing arousal Motivation can be viewed as a capability that initiates, directs and sustains behaviours that promote survival and reproduction Sigmund Freud believed that drives are satisfied according to the pleasure principle which tells orgs to seeks pleasure and avoid pain KLo]K]},oo[ZZ} animals engage in behaviours that do not necessarily satisfy bio needs eg. Animals prefer to eat sweets Extrinsic motivation motivation to perform an activity because of external goals toward which that activity is directed i.e. drive reduction or reward; working to earn a pay check at the end of a week www.notesolution.com
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