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Chapter 11

Chapter 11 Notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Michael Inzlicht

Chapter 11 J Human Development Developmental Psychology the study of changes in physiology, cognition and social behaviour over the life span Experience shapes brain development and psychological capacities (nature vs. Nurture dichotomy is false) 1 2 months, baby = an embryo; after 2 months baby = a fetus th ,}Z}]L[ZL ooZo}]LZ ]] ZL ]LZ]ZK}LZZ}2Z]}L by 7 month; the fetus has a working nervous system Hormones have an impact on fetal development e.g. low levels of thyroid hormones leads to lower IQ and diminished intellectual development in the child Drugs, alcohol and illness all impair physical and cognitive development e.g. fetal alcohol syndrome Teratogens environmental agents that harm the embryo or fetus Early brain growth has 2 important aspects: 1. Specific areas within the brain mature and become functional 2. Regions of the brain learn to communicate with each other through synaptic connections Myelinated axons form synapses with other neurons leads to synaptic pruning; a process whereby the synaptic connections in the brain that are frequently used are preserved, and those that are not are lost Critical period time in which certain experiences must occur for normal brain development, such as exposure to visual information during infancy for the normal development of the visual pathways of the brain; if these skills are not acquired during the critical period, they cannot be acquired later in development Eric Lenneberg; critical period hypothesis environmental input is important but biology determines when an organism needs to receive particular input in order to make use of it Attachment a strong emotional connection that persists over time and across circumstances John Bowlby attachment serves to motivate infants and caregivers to stay in close contact Attachment across species some birds (geese, ducks and chickens) imprint (form a strong attachment) to whichever adult is nearby e.g. in Konrad Lorenz experiment ,o}[ZK}LlZ ,}LlZo ]Z}^K}ZZ_}LK} o}ZZ}ZK} wire but able to provide milk monkeys spent most of the day with terrycloth mother and clung to it in times of threat; they only went to the wired mother for milk www.notesolution.com
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