How Does Motivation Activate, Direct, and Sustain Behaviour?
Multiple factors motivate behaviour
Some behaviours are motivated for their own sake
Critical Thinking Skill: Recognizing when psychological reactance may
be influencing your thinking
People set goals to achieve
People have a need to belong
What Determines How We Eat?
Time and taste play roles
Culture determines what we eat
Multiple neural processes control eating
What Factors Motivate Sexual Behaviour?
Biological factors influence sexual behaviour
Cultural scripts and cultural rules shape sexual interactions
Mating strategies differ between the sexes
People differ in sexual orientation
How Are Emotions Adaptive?
Facial expressions communicate emotion
Emotions serve cognitive functions
Critical Thinking Skill: Recognizing and correcting for belief persistence
in your own thinking and in that of others
Emotions strengthen interpersonal relations
Motivation: factors that energize, direct, or sustain behaviour. It focuses on
what produces behaviour. There are four essential qualities of motivational
states are energizing - they activate or arouse behaviours
states are directive - they guide behaviours towards satisfying specific
goals or needs
states help people persist - until goals are achieved motives differ in strength - depending on internal and external factors
Need: state of biological or social deficiency
Need Hierarchy: Maslow's arrangement of needs, in which basic survival
needs must be met before pe