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Chapter 1

Chapter 1

8 Pages

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Gillian Rowe

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Statistics 11 Statistics Science and ObservationsStatisticsset of mathematical procedures for organizing summarizing and interpreting information ex average income crime rate birth rate average snowfallStatistics serve two general purposes 1 Used to organize and summarize the info so the researcher can see what happened inthe research study and can communicate the results to others 2 Help the researcher to answer the general questions that initiated the research bydetermining exactly what conclusions are justified based on the results obtained 12 Populations and SamplesPopulationthe set of all the individuals of interest in a particular studyvaries in size pop being studied is always identified by the researcher need not consist of peopleSampleset of individuals selected from a population usually intended to represent the population in a research studyusually impossible to examine every individuals in the pop of interest sample is representative of the pop vary in sizeAfter examining the sample researcher must then generalize the results back to the entire popREFER BACK TO FIGURE 11 TO SEE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A POPULATION AND A SAMPLE Variable and DataTypically interested in specific characteristics of the individuals in the pop or outside factors that influence themex influence of weather on peoples moodsVariablecharacteristiccondition that changes or has different values for different individualsCan differ between people ex height can be environmental conditions ex changes in tempTo demonstrate changes in variables need measurements of the variables being examinedData pluralmeasurements of observationsData seta collection of measurements or observationsDatum singulara single measurement or observation commonly called a scoreraw scoreWill also refer to populations or samples of scores Parameters and StatisticsParametera value usually a numerical value that describes a population usually derived from measurements of the individuals in the populationStatistica value usually a numerical value that describes a sample usually derived from measurements of the individuals in the sample average score for a sample is an ex of a statisticThe research process begins with a question about the population parameter but actual data come from a sample and are used to compute sample statistics
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