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Chapter 2

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University of Toronto St. George
Kristie Dukewich

Understanding Statistics: Chapter 2 PSY201  Mathematical Notation  X and Y are the variables measures  N is the number of subjects/scores  X ii the ith score, where i can vary from 1 to N  Σ (”sigma”) = sum  ∑  X (ihe sum of the X variable from i=1 to N  This is often written as ΣX  The “N” above the Σ can be a number, for example 3, and you therefore only calculate the sum of X1 through X3 and not all the way to XN  ΣX = sum of the squared X scores  We are first to square the X scores, and then sum them  (ΣX) = sum of the X scores, quantity squared  First we sum the X scores and then we square them  Measurement Scales  Nominal Scales  Has categories for the units  For example, “brands of jogging shoes”  Ordinal Scales  Numbers on the scale represent rank orderings, rather than raw score magnitudes  For example, in a spelling bee, the individual ranked as 1 is considered higher/better
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