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Chapter 2

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University of Toronto St. George

Psychology

PSY201H1

Kristie Dukewich

Fall

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Understanding Statistics: Chapter 2
PSY201
Mathematical Notation
X and Y are the variables measures
N is the number of subjects/scores
X ii the ith score, where i can vary from 1 to N
Σ (”sigma”) = sum
∑
X (ihe sum of the X variable from i=1 to N
This is often written as ΣX
The “N” above the Σ can be a number, for example 3, and you therefore only calculate
the sum of X1 through X3 and not all the way to XN
ΣX = sum of the squared X scores
We are first to square the X scores, and then sum them
(ΣX) = sum of the X scores, quantity squared
First we sum the X scores and then we square them
Measurement Scales
Nominal Scales
Has categories for the units
For example, “brands of jogging shoes”
Ordinal Scales
Numbers on the scale represent rank orderings, rather than raw score magnitudes
For example, in a spelling bee, the individual ranked as 1 is considered higher/better

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