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Chapter 6

PSY201 Chapter 6 Correlation

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University of Toronto St. George
Kristie Dukewich

Chapter 6 Correlation - Correlation coefficient expresses the degree and direction of the relationship - The direction of the relationship refers to whether the relationship is positive or negative - The degree of the relationship refers to the strength of the relationship - The direction and degree of the correlation coefficient must be independent of the differences in units and scaling that exist between two variables - Perfect relationship - The same value of X always leads to the same value of Y - The same value of Y always leads to the same value of X - Imperfect relationship - Prediction is approximate - The same value of X doesn’t always lead to the same value of Y - On average, Y changes systematically with X - Predicting Y with better with the knowledge of X than without it - Zero relationship - The knowledge of X does not aid in predicting Y - Linear correlation coefficient - Pearson r is a measure of the extent to which paired scores occupy the same or opposite positions within each of their distributions - Pearson r can be interpreted in terms of the variability of Y accounted for by X - In absence of a relationship between X and Y, the overall mean is the best predictor of Y - Minimizes prediction errors because the sum of the squared deviations from the mean is a minimum - When there is a relationship between X and Y, we use the line to predict Y - Pearson (r) = both variables a
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