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Chapter 7

Chapter 7.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY202H1
Professor
Frederick

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Chapter 7 The Architecture of Social ControlThe design of the physical environment is a central facet of how actions and interactions are controlled and does much to order human conduct o Control functions of architectural design are perhaps most evident in the institution of prisono In a sense the walls inside a prison function in similar fashion to those in many buildings Whereas the prison wall serves to control troublesome sections of the population through confinement in recent times we have seen what amounts to an effective inversion of this logic of control with the reemergence of gated communities o They seek to manufacture protection for residence by the use of boundary walls to exclude outsiders and thereby supposedly reduce the risks of disorder within Behaviour and environmentIn 1911 Georg Simmel described how the constant flow of stimuli encountered in modern urban situations produced new forms of social being he argued urban life induces a blas attitude amongst individuals where the rush of stimuli is largely screened out in order to prevent them being overwhelmed by their experiencesRichard Sennett 1990 has shown how the design of cities frequently gives material and symbolic expression to particular dimensions of social lifeSimmel and Sennett provide us with insights into the ways that urban design shapes social life at the same time as it is a product of those selfsame social formations o Eg Paris in the nineteenth centuryredesign was about the imposition of a sense of order and an act of social control Urban StudiesChicago Schoolby studying waves of immigrants into Chicago they were able to show that delinquent and disorderly behaviour was not caused by inherent racial or individual characteristics but was rather better explained as a symptom of the way in which immigration patterns related to the socioeconomic organization of the city and a control deficit that was itself the product of social disorganization and a fragmented social bondBurgess 1925zonal model of city o Zones in transitionconcentration of criminal and disorderly behaviours had the cheapest rents where new immigrants settled initially o As they became more established and settled they would be able to afford to move to the more prosperous city neighbourhoodsSubsequent work on urban development patterns has sought to refine the potentially overly deterministic interpretations that can be read into the zonal model
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