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Chapter 1

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Justin Mc Neil

PSY210 Ch.l 10/1/2012 2 :15:00 PM History, theory & applied directions Child development - studying the constancy and change from conception through adolescence Development divided into: • Physical • Cognitive • Emotional & Social Periods of Development • Prenatal period: conception to birth o 9 months o Most rapid changes • Infancy and toddlerhood: from birth to 2 years o Most dramatic changes in body and brain o Cognition starts to develop • Early childhood : 2 to 6 years o Physical change o Motor skills refined o Self -control/sufficiency • Middle childhood: 6 to 11 years o Learn about wider world o Athletic abilities o More logic o Sel f,morality, friendship • Adolescence: 11 to 18 years o Puberty o Autonomy Basic Issues with theories of development • Theory: An orderl y,integrated set of statements that describes , explains and predicts behaviour o Theories provide organizing frameworks for our observations of children - they guide and give meaning to what we see o Theories verified by research help us act upon info to help and treat the child • THREE BASIC ISSUES o 1. Is the course of development continuous or discontinuous? o 2. Does one course of development characterize all children, or are there many possible outcomes? o 3. What are the roles of genetic and environmental factors (nature/nurture) in development? • 1. Continuous or Discontinuous? o Continuous: A process of gradually adding more of the same types of skills that were there to begin with . • Curve upwards • View that children are similar to adults, with similar cognitive processing , except children do not have the same amount of compl exity • Development is a smooth continuous process, we gradually add more of the same types of skills o Discontinuous: A process in which new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times • Staircase steps upwards • Steps and separate stages of development • Children step up to the next level bit by bit,with each step the child interprets and responds to the world in a qualitatively new way o Stages: qualitative changes in thinking/feeling/behaving that characterize specific periods of development • 2. One course of development or many? o Stage theorists: people everywhere follow the same sequence of development (it is biological and universal) o Children grow up in distinct contexts: unique combinations of personal and environmental circumstances that can result in different paths of change o Contemporary theorists: contexts that mold development are complex. Both nature and nurture. Cultural diversity can affect development. • 3.Relative influence of nature and nurture? o Opinion about underlying causes of development o Genetic vs. Environmental o Which is most influential? o Nature -Nurture controversy o Nature - hereditary, biological o Nurture - physical and social world, environment, experiences o Stability of personality • Nature opinion = Personality seen as hereditary (STABILITY) • Nurture opinion = Personality seen as built by early experiences (PLASTICITY) o Optimistic view = Development has substantial plasticity throughout life - as open to change in response to influential experiences. • Stability vs. Plasticity o Resilience: Ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to development Historical foundations of Development • Medieval times = children seen as vulnerable • The Reformation = children beaten, taught to reason • The Enlightenment = children treated better (Locke vs. Rousseau) o Locke: • Tabula Rasa - Children seen as a blank slate • Behaviorism - Children are shaped by early experience • Regarded development as continuous • Nurture + Environment most influential o Believed in: • Many courses of development (not universal) • High plasticity (not biologic stability) o Rousseau • Children are not blank slates, they are noble savages • Children have a built in moral sense • Child -centered philosophy o Believed in: • Stage development - discontinuous development • Maturation concept: genetically determined, naturally unfolding course of growth (nature + genetics + biologic influence) • Stability instead of plasticity • Scientific beginnings • Darwin o Theory of evolution -7 children evolve similarly, universally (Genetic > environmental) o Natural selection o Survival of the fittest o Father of scientific study of children • The Normative Period o G. Stanley Hall o Saw development as a maturational process - a genetically determined series of events that unfold automatically (Saw development as Genetic) o Normative approach: measures of behaviour are taken on large numbers of individual and age related averages are computed to represent typical development • Used for what parents could expect at each age • Mental Testing Movement o Stanford -Binet Intelligence tests (age related intelligence testing) • Baldwin: Early development theorist o Believed in both nature and nurture as important equally Mid -Twentieth -Century Theories • The Psychoanalytic Perspective o Children move through a series of stages in which they confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectations o How these conflicts are resolved determines the persons ability to learn/get along with others/cope with anxiety. • Freud's Theory o Psychos exual theory : how parents manage their child's sexual and aggressive drives in the first few years is crucial for healthy personality development o The id, ego and superego • Id = biological needs, desires • Ego = consciou s,rational, redirects id's impulses so they are discharged in acceptable ways • Superego = our conscious, morals, conforming to society TABLE 14.1 FREUD'S PSYCHOSEXU SATAGES Stage Focus Oral Pleasurecentersonthe mt'suckig,bit ng.chewing m·:>nths) Anal Pleasurfocusesonboweam bladdereliminatc;oing·Nitti (1.8-35months) denands forcontml PhaUic Pleasurzoneisthegenitals;'opingwithincess.(ualfeelings l3-6ye2rs) LatenC1( Dormantsexuafleelings (6tuJlUUIly) Genital Maturationof5exuaitnterests (puberty on) • Erikson's Theory = A response to Freud's o In addition to mediating between id impulses and superego demands, the ego makes a positive contribution to development as it acquires attitudes and skills which make someone an active contributing member of society Erikson's Stage Theory inits Final Version Age Conflict ResolutionrNVirtueN Culminationinoldage Infancy Basic trust vs.mistrust Hope Appreciation of interdependence and relatedness (0-1 year) Early childhood Will Acceptanceof the cycle of life,from integration to Autonomy vs.shame (1-3years) disintegration Play age Initiative vs.guilt Purpose Humor; empathy; resilience (3-6years) School age Industry vs.Inferiority Competence Humility; acceptance of the course of one's life and (6-12 years) unfulfilled hopes Adolescence Identity vs.Confusion Fidelity Sense of complexity of life;merging of sensory, (12-19 years) logical and aesthetic perception Early adulthood Intimacyvs.Isolation Love Sense of the complexity of relationships; value of (20-25 years) tenderness and loving freely Adulthood Generativity vs.stagnation Care Caritas, caring for others, and agape, empathy and (26-64 years) concern Old age Integrity vs. Despair Wisdom Exbtential identity;a sense of integrity strong (65-death) enough to withstand physical disintegration • Limitations of the Psychoanalytic Perspective o Psychoanalyt ic theorists focused too much on the development of individual children that they failed to consider other methods Behaviorism and Social Learning Theory • Behaviorism: Directly observable events, stimuli, responses are the appropriate focus for the study of development o John Watson • Little Albert o Pavlov • Classical conditioning o Skinner • Operant conditioning • Social Learning Theory o Albert Bandurra -Bobo dolls o Theory: emphasized modeling • Imitation/observational learning as a powerful source of development • Children develop personal standards of behavio r,and sense of self efficacy • Contributions and Limitations of Social Learning Theory o © Behaviour Modification: procedures that combine conditioning and modeling to eliminate undesirable behaviours and increase desirable responses o ® Environmental influences not considered enough: more than reinforces, punishments, modeled behavior Piaget's Cognitive -Development Theory • Children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world • Genetic ,biologica l,universa l,discontinuous view of development (stages) COGNITIVEDEVELOPMENT STAGES stage Age Description Sensorimotor 0-2 Reflex base Coordinate reflexes 2-6 or 7 Self-oriented Preoperational Egocentric ConcreteOperational 6 or 7- More than 1 view point 11 or 12 No abstract problems Consider someoutcomes 11 or 12 Think abstractly Formal Operational L!P Reason theoretically Not all people reachthis stage • Contributions and Limitations of Piaget's Theory: o © : Encouraged the development of educational philosophies, children learning and contact with environment
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