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Psychology (2,948)
PSY210H1 (44)
Chapter 2

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University of Toronto St. George
Justin Mc Neil

Chapter two Naturalistic observation: record behavior in a natural environment Strength- you observe the behavior Limitation- not everybody has the same opportunity to display the behavior Structured observation- observe the behavior in a lab and so everyone has an equal opportunity of displaying the behavior. Strength- greater control Limitation- don’t know if that’s how people behave in a natural setting Event sampling- observe the behavior in a specified period of time Time sampling-record how many times the behavior occurs in a specific interval Systematic observation can be bad because of observer influence: the behavior might change since its has been observed, it might get effected Children usually cant lie but adults can You can minimize the observer influence by visiting the place very frequently, ask someone else about the behavior Observer bias: the observer might record what they want and what they observe Clinical interview: not structured and so ppl display their thoughts and you get a lot of info. Limitations: sometimes people are not accurate about recording the past, answers to please the interviewer and response can be affected by the questioning technique. Structured interview: same questions, same way its briefer Neurobiological methods- see the relationship between the nervous system and the behavior. What nervous system structure contribute to development You can look at saliva, heart rate, blood pressure EEG- measure brain wave patterns for stability and organization ERP’s: detect location of brain with activity PET and fMRI- look at activity in the brain and you have to lie without moving NIRs- invisible light is beamed at regions of the cortex to see blood flow and oxygen metabolism while child attends to a stimulus only function of cerebral cortex Limits-not sure the activity is a results of the stimulus or not sure if everyone process the stimulus the same. Clinical case study- interview,observations,tests,neurobiological measures oral Limits –since info is collected unsystematically –researchers bias Also cant generalize to other ppl , only to the person studied Culture-some time researchers translate the interview and sometimes ethnography: from anthropology, understanding a culture or distinct social group through observation of the ps . Can’t be generalized beyond the group studied Reliability- consistency or repeatability of measures of behavior Inter-rater reliability- observers collect behavior and must agree on it Retest reliability: Reliability of self report and data by comparing children’s results on different occasions Validity; accurately measure what the researcher was out to measure Interna
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