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Chapter 7

PSY220 Chapter 7.docx

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Jason Plaks

Chapter 7 Group Influence 7.1 Define a Group  Group: two or more people who, for longer than a few moments, interact with and influence one another and perceive one another as “us”  Shaw: All groups have one thing in common: their members interact  3 Examples of collective influence: 1. Social facilitations, 2. Social loafing, and 3. Deindividuation.  4 Examples of social influence in interacting groups: 1. Group polarization, 2. Groupthink, 3. Leadership, and 4. Minority influence 7.2 Social Facilitation  Co-actors: a group of people working simultaneously and individually on a non- competitive task  The Mere Presence of Others  Social-facilitation: 1. It originally means the tendency of people to perform simple or well-learned tasks better when others are present 2. It currently means the strengthening of dominant (prevalent, likely) responses owing to the presence of others  It occurs on animals, too  However, the presence of others disrupt the efficiency to learn completing a maze, nonsense syllables, and performing complex multiplication problems  Zajonc: Increased arousal (with the presence of others) enhances performance on easy tasks, but promotes incorrect responding to the complex tasks  Home-advantage: supportive audience energize the performers  Crowding: the Presence of Many Others  A good house is a full house (imagine a lecture with full of students in a small room vs. a lecture with only some students in a huge room)  Crowding not only enhances the interactions between the audiences, but it enhances arousal as well  Why Are We Aroused in the Presence of Others?  3 factors that creates arousal: 1. Evaluation apprehension, distraction and mere presence  Evaluation Apprehension  Observers make us apprehensive because we concern how they are evaluating us.  The enhancement of dominant response is strongest when people think they are being evaluated.  Social-facilitation effects are greatest when the others are unfamiliar and hard to keep an eye on  Driven by Distraction  When people wonder how co-actors are doing or how an audience is reacting, they get distracted  Mere Presence  Zajonc believed that the mere presence of others produces arousal even without evaluation apprehension or arousing distraction (animals) 7.3 Social Loafing  Many Hands Make Light Work  Social Loafing: The tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their efforts toward a common goal than when they are individually accountable Free Riders: people who benefit from the group but give little in return  When being observed increases evaluation concerns, social facilitation occurs; when being lost in a crowd decreases evaluation concerns, social loafing occurs  Making individual performance identifiable  evaluation apprehension  arousal  Culture: social loafing in the formerly communist countries  Social loading exhibits less in collectivist cultures than individual cultures because of the loyalty to family and work groups.  Social Loafing in Everyday Life  People in groups loaf less when the task is challenging, appealing, or involving (Ex. Olympics team competitions)  People also loaf less when their members are friends or are identified with or indispensable to the group  Cohesiveness intensifies effort 7.4 Deindividuation  Doing Together What We Would Not Do Alone  Deindividuation happens when arousal and diffused responsibility combine and normal inhibitions diminish.  In certain kinds of group situations, people are more likely to abandon normal restraints, to lose their sense of individual responsibility, to become deindividuated.  Deindividuation: loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension; occurs in group situations that foster anonymity and draw attention away from the individual. o Group Size  “Everyone is doing it”  Group not only to arouse its members but also to render them unidentifiable o Physical Anonymity  Anonymity gives people permission to do hostile things  Halloween experiment: when deindividuated by group immersion combined with anonymity, most children stole extra candy  The cultures with depersonalized warriors were also the cultures that brutalized the enemy  Being anonymous makes one less self-conscious, and more responsive to cues present in the situation, whether negative (wearing Klan uniforms) or positive (wearing nurses’ uniforms) o Arousing and Distracting Activities  Aggressive outbursts by large crowds are often preceded by minor actions
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