Chapter 13: Aggression
Situational Determinants of Aggression
Hostile aggression is motivated by anger and hostility, having the primary aim of
harming others, either physically or psychologically.
Instrumental aggression is behavior intended to achieve some goal.
o Heat affects levels of violence. Hotter cities have higher rates of violent
crime, and more violence occurs during hot months than during cool months.
o Media violence has been shown to cause violence and aggression in real
life. When a highly publicized suicide occurs, copycat suicides follow.
o Longitudinal studies show that children who watch more violence on TV
commit more serious crimes as adults than do children who watch less
o Watching violence on TV also causes more violent behavior in the short
Columbia County, NY
More violent TV at age 8, more crime by 30
o Violent video games also increase the likelihood of violence.
Mortal Kombat vs PGA Golf
Victor gave more white noise after MK
Columbine: loved Doom
Social rejection is a powerful elicitor of aggressive tendencies.
o Evolutionarily meant death sentence, trigger same responses as pain
o Study: Noise blast and imagined alone future correlation
o Income inequality
Construal Processes and Aggression
According to the frustration-aggression hypothesis, when attempts at achieving
goals are blocked, aggression ensues. Increase with proportion
Learned helplessness: Passive and depressed responses that individuals show
when their goals are blocked and they feel that they have no control over their
An alternative hypothesis is the neo-associationistic model, which states that
people respond aggressively to an aversive stimulus only when they make anger-
related construals about that stimulus. Its about how we interpret events Construal processes affect both anger and ag