Give some P’s an experience of being socially included while others experienced temporary
exclusion. Those who felt excluded became more likely to engage in self-defeating behaviours
such as underperforming on an aptitude test but also less able to regulate their behaviour (ate
unhealthy, easily irritated).
Exclusion hurts even when done online with people we’ve nevet met. Have P’s play a web-based
game if throwing a flying disk with two other computer generated players. Those left out by the
other players experienced poorer moods and became more likely to conform to others’ wrong
judgements in a perception task. Exclusion hurts even when it’s by a disliked out-group like the
Those asked to recall a time when they were socially excluded perceived the room temperature
as 5 degrees colder than those asked to recall a social acceptance experience.
Randomly assign students to seats on the first day of class and have each person make a brief
self-introduction to the entire class. One year after, students reported greater friendship with
those who just happened, during that first class, to be seated near them.
If you had an identical twin who had a partner you would think that you would also fall in live
with your partner’s choice however it is quite the opposite (only 5% said I could have fallen for
my twin’s fiancée).
Give women ambiguous information about two other women one of whom they expected to talk
with intimately. Asked how much they liked each one, the women preferred the person they
expected to meet. Expectation boosts liking.
Give P’s two sets of words in two different languages. Whichever set of words the P’s had seen
most frequently are the ones they preferred and gave higher ratings.
Mere exposure increases liking something even more when the stimuli are perceived without
awareness. P’s using headphones listened in one ear to a passage. They also repeated the words
out loud and compared them to a written version ti check for errors. In the other ear, brief novel
melodies were being played. Later, when the women heard the tunes interspersed among similar
ones not previously played, they did not recognize them. However, they liked best the tunes they
had previously heard.
We even like ourselves better when we are the way we’re used to seeing ourselves. Have P’s get
photographed and later showed each one her actual picture along with a mirror image of it. They
most preferred the mirror image – the image they were used to seeing. When close friends of the
subjects were shown the same two pictures, they preferred the true picture (they image they were
used to seeing).
Randomly match up P’s to go out to a “Welcome Week” dance. They also had them to
personality and aptitude tests but then matched the couples completely randomly (so not based
on personality). During the dance they had an intermission and asked everyone to rate their
partners. They found that the biggest indicator for wanting to date the other person again was attractiveness (for both men and women – contrary to a previous study in the textbook that said
women rate men more on personality characteristics and men rating more on looks).
Show P’s pictures of two major candidates in a number of different elections in the world. Based
on looks alone, the students preferred competent-looking over more baby-faced candidates and
in doing so they predicted the winners of 67% of the elections. Also, men are more likely to vote
for physically attractive female candidates and women more likely to vote for approachable-
looking male candidates. Likewise, heterosexual people display a positive bias toward attractive
job candidates and university applicants if they are of the other sex.
People tend to date others who closely match their attractiveness (rather than someone who is a
lot better or worse looking). Those who were most similar in physical attractiveness were most
likely 9 months later to fall more deeply in love. In cases where the two in the relationship are
much different in their attractiveness the less attractive person usually has compensating qualities
(men typically offer wealth or status and women offer looks). Men who advertise their income
and education and women who advertise their youth and looks receive more responses to their
Teachers perceive attractive kids as more intelligent.
Have P’s rate their impression if eight w