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PSY220H1 (200)
Chapter 6-10

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University of Toronto St. George
Jennifer Fortune

PSY220 Chapter 6: Attitudes and Social Behaviour Attitudes – an individual’s evaluation of a target along a good-bad dimension Ambivalent Attitudes – evaluations of targets that include both positive and negative elements Explicit Attitudes – evaluations that ppl can report consciously Implicit Attitudes – automatic evaluative responses to a target, which may occur without awareness Object-appraisal Function – a function of attitudes in which attitudes provide rapid evaluative judgments of targets, facilitating approach or avoidance Values – broad, abstract standards or goals that ppl consider to be important guiding principles in their life Value-expressive Function – a function of attitudes in which attitudes communicate individuals’ identity and values Likert-type Scale – an attitude measurement technique that requires respondents to indicate the extent of their agreement or disagreement with several statements on an issue Semantic Differential Scale – an attitude measurement technique requires respondents to rate a target on several evaluative dimensions (such as good-bad and favorable-unfavorable) Facial Electromyography (facial EMG) – a procedure for measuring muscle contractions in the face that may be sensitive to positive versus negative responses to a stimulus Implicit Association Test (IAT) – a reaction time procedure that provides a measure of implicit attitudes; participants sort targets into a “good” category or a “bad” category, and the speed at which the sorting is completed is taken as a measurement of implicit attitude toward the object Evaluative Conditioning – a process by which objects come to evoke positive or negative effect simply by their association with affect-inducing events Mere Exposure Effect – the tendency for repeated contact with an object, even without reinforcement, to increase liking for the object Alcohol Myopia – the tendency for intoxication to reduce cognitive capacity, which results in a narrowing of attention Socialization – the process by which infants are moulded into acceptable members of their society Reference Group – a collection of ppl that serves as a standard of comparison for an individual, whether in terms of attitudes, values, or behavior PSY220 Jeer Pressure – the conformity pressure that is produced by seeing someone ridiculed by another person Theory of Reasoned Action – a model of behavior that views humans as rational decision makers who behave on the basis of logical beliefs Behavioral Intention – an individual’s plan to perform or not perform an action IMB Model of AIDS-preventive Behavior – a theory postulating that info, motivation, and behavioral skills guide individuals’ protective actions in the sexual domain Hostile Media Phenomenon – the tendency for ppl who feel strongly about an issue to believe that the media coverage of the issue is biased against their side Compatibility Principle – a theory stating that a measure of attitudes will correlate highly with a measure of behaviour only when the two measures are matched in terms of being general/broad or specific/narrow Culture – the set of values, beliefs, and behaviors shared by a group of ppl and communicated from one generation to the next Power Distance – the extent to which a culture accepts an unequal distribution of influence within the society PSY220 Chapter 7: Attitude Change Cognitive Dissonance Theory – a mode of proposed by Leon Festinger, which states that awareness of consonant cognitions makes us feel good, whereas awareness of dissonant cognitions makes us feel bad. Further, the unpleasant feelings produced by dissonant cognitions motivates us to do something to change our state Consonant Cognitions – beliefs that are consistent or compatible with one another Dissonant Cognitions – beliefs that are inconsistent or logically discrepant with one another Induced Compliance Paradigm – a research methodology used to test dissonance theory that arouses dissonance by getting ppl to engage in counter-attitudinal behavior. In this paradigm, participants are induced to comply with an experimenter’s request that they behave in a way that is inconsistent with their attitudes. Effort Justification Paradigm – a research methodology used to test dissonance theory that arouses dissonance by getting ppl to invest time or energy to achieve a goal that may not be worthwhile Free Choice Paradigm – a research methodology used to test dissonance theory that arouses dissonance by getting ppl to choose b/w two or more alternatives Impression Management Theory – an alternative to dissonance theory that argues that participants in dissonance experiments want to appear consistent to the experimenter and therefore lie about their attitudes Self-affirmation Theory – an alternative to dissonance theory that argues that ppl are threatened by behavior that challenges their self-worth and can deal with this threat by reaffirming an important value Hypocrisy Paradigm – a research methodology used to test dissonance theory that arouses dissonance by having ppl publicly promote a socially desirable behavior and then be made aware that they have not always exhibited the behavior themselves in the past Preference for Consistency (PFC) – a disposition that represents the extent to which ppl desire predictability and consistency within their own response within others’ responses Cognitive Response Theory – a model of persuasion that assumes that the impact of a message on attitudes depends on the thoughts evoked by the message Hard Sell – an advertising strategy that relies on presenting information about the positive features of a product Heuristic Persuasion – attitude change resulting from cues that indicate that the position advocated in a message is valid PSY220 Soft Shell – an advertising strategy that relies on the use of images, emotions, symbols, or values to promote a product Systematic-heuristic Model – a theory of attitude change that distinguishes b/w two types of processing that can occur in response to a persuasive message: systematic processing and heuristic processing Elaboration Likelihood Model – a theory of attitude change that specifies the conditions under which ppl will think carefully about the content of a persuasive message. It distinguishes b/w two type of processing: the central route to persuasion and the peripheral route to persuasion Systematic Processing – careful, deliberative analysis of arguments in a message Heuristic Processing – superficial analysis of a message that focuses on cues indicating the validity or invalidity of the advocated position Central Route to Persuasion – persuasion that occurs when attitude change results from a careful analysis of the information in a persuasive communication Peripheral Route to Persuasion – persuasion that occurs when attitude change results from non- cognitive factors; it encompasses evaluative conditioning and mere exposure Peripheral Cues – simple features or heuristics that are assumed to indicate that a message is valid Protection Motivation Theory – a model that articulates how threatening messages can influence attitudes and behavior Propaganda – a persuasive attempt that is motivated by an ideology, or set of values, and that is deliberately biased in its presentation information Destructive Cult – a rigidly structured group, led
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