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Chapter 9

psych220 ch.9 textbook

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Jennifer Fortune

Ch.9 Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination Prejudice:a negative attitude toward members of a group, which is often very strongly held Discrimination: negative, harmful behaviour toward people based on their group membership Genocide: an attempt to systematically eliminate an ethnic group through banishment or murder Aversive racism: a “modern” kind of prejudice held by people who do not consider themselves prejudiced and who would find any accusation of being prejudiced aversive, but who nevertheless harbor some negative beliefs and hostile feelings toward members of minority group. Self-fulfilling prophecy: a process in which a perceiver’s expectancy about a target person influences the perceiver’s behaviour toward the target person in such a way as to elicit the expected actions from the target person (i.e target’s behaviour confirms the perceiver’s stereotype or expectancy) Subliminal priming procedures: a method of activating a schema or stereotype by flashing words or pictures very briefly on a computer screen in front of a participant Implicit Intergroup biases: distorted judgements about members of a group based on a stereotype, which can occur without the person’s awareness. Meta-stereotype: a person’s belief about the stereotype that outgroup members hold concerning his or her own group • e.g. people who believe that their group is viewed negatively by an outgroup tend to anticipate unpleasant interactions w/ members of that group Scapegoat theory: a theory proposing that prejudice occurs because members of dominant groups use discrimination against members of weak target groups to vent their frustration and disappointment Realistic group conflict theory: a theory proposing that when groups in society are perceived to be competing with one another for resources, intergroup hostility can be aroused, which leads to prejudice. Integrated threat theory: a theory proposing that prejudice results from four types of threats: realistic threats, symbolic threats, threats stemming from intergroup anxiety, and threats arising from negative stereotypes Sexism: prejudice discrimination directed against women because of their gender Neosexism: a subtle form of sexism, which included beliefs that women are no longer disadvantaged and antagonism toward women’s demand for better treatment Ambivalent sexism inventory: a measure of stereotyped attitudes toward women, which is composed of two dimensions, one positive and one negative: benevolent sexism and hostile sexism. Benevolent sexism: positive but paternalistic attitudes toward women Hostile sexism: negative attitudes toward women who violate the traditional stereotype of women Appearance self-esteem: An individual’s satisfaction with his or her physical looks Personal-group discrimination discrepancy: the tendency for people to report that they as individuals have experienced less negative treatment based on their group membership than the average member of their group Stereotype threat: the pressure experienced by individuals who fear that if they perform poorly on a task, their performance will appear to confirm an unfavorable belief about their group Contact hypothesis: the idea that exposure to members of an outgroup will produce more favourable attitudes toward that group Jigsaw classroom: a method of a teaching designed to foster positive interracial contact, which involves forming small, culturally diverse groups of student who are each given one part of the material to be learned. Colour-blind approach: the hypothesis that to reduce prejudice, people should be encouraged to categorize other people as individual persons rather than as members of groups. Multiculturalism: the hypothesis that to reduce prejudice, different cultural groups within a society should each maintain their own identity while simultaneously respecting all other groups. Superordinate goals: goals that can be achieved only be cooperating Explicit Prejudice: Conscious feelings toward members of particular social groups (what people report when we ask them how they feel about group “x” Implicit Prejudice: Unconscious and automatic evaluations of members of particular and social groups; not accessible via usual self-report methods (not aware) Implicit Association Test(IAT): developed to test the relative strength of various associations taps implicit (automatic or unconscious) attitudes beyond the reach of usual self-report • measures • participants make a series of fast sorting decisions organized into blocks • Responses on incongruent and congruent trials are compared (Congruent: in line with stereotype; Incongruent; opposes stereotype) • originally created to examine biases/prejudice for black people • criticism: explores your awareness of prejudice and not your level, and also reinforces stereotype presence of black people may lower biases in experiment • Salience: evidence that stereotypes can form from purely cognitive processes, without emotion or motivation -Stereotypes---cognition -Prejudice---affect -Discrimination---behaviour Why Prejudice exists: • Categorization: natural human tendency to group objects • Social Categorization: sorting people into groups on common characteristics (big 3: age, race, gender) Outgroup members • • Realistic group conflict theory • Scapegoat theory • Self enhancement: more positively biased toward own group to make ingroup more superior than other groups • Outgroup homogenity bias: thinking people who are in outgroup are all “same” • Tendency to hold stereotypes and prejudice may be innate • automatically know stereotype and have work to override them (cognitive miser) Stereotypes and memory • participants exposed to story and a cartoon about an argument between two men (one White and one Black) • then asked to tell story to next person and so on • after 5-6 transmissions: -70% of details were lost -Over 50% of stories now involved knife in black man’s hand (knife was initially in white man’s) Correll et al., 2002: • study on participants playing simulated game of white/black men holding gun and non- gun objects then told to “shoot” armed people • more errors with black targets Occupational Aspirations: • participants: black and white children • African american children accorded higher status to jobs that have higher concentrations of European Americans • children less interested in doing unfamiliar jobs depicted as more of a “black person job” Stereotype threat: • black students perform better on an IQ test when: -they believe performance will be compared with other black students (opposed to white) -test is gramed as a test of hand-eye coordination Steele & Aronson stereotype threat(ST) experiment: Conditions: • -ST: “test is a genuine test of your verbal abilities and limitations” -non ST: test will help us to better
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