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PSY220H1 (200)
Chapter 01

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University of Toronto St. George
Ashley Waggoner Denton

Chapter 1 Introducing Social PsychologyWhat is Social PsychologyLives are connected to each otherSocial psych is about understanding social connections with each other How peoples thoughts feelings behavior is influenced by factors in social worldGordon All Port said a similar quote Woody Allen examines interpersonal relationships but lacks scientific value and methods therefore only anecdotal Michael Moorelacks objectivity and systemic observation Religious stuffexplains stuff but expects people to simply believe Using Scientific MethodCommitment to collecting accurate error free data objectivity and bias freeResearch methods for investigating stuff get info evaluate Hypothesisguess about relationship between events and examine accuracy about hypothesis with observationHow we think about ourselvesSocial Psych self perception and how our view of our self depends on sociocultural environmentEx students who come to uni feeling good about self bc theyre smart or athletic but face the fact that everyone is like you so you end up feeling less good about your self Social Psych examines selfpresentationhow we present our ideas about self to othersConvey it in many forms ex The car we drive clothes casual references we make in convo How we think feel and act in Social World How we form impressions and infer stuff about others and events social perceptions Social cognitionhow we think about people and the social world Social influenceimpact of other peoples attitudes and behavior on our thoughts feelings and behavior can be quite direct advertising messages can be subtle helping people when in group or alone examines impact on persons perception of other peoples attitude and behaviorex What we imagine other people might do when no one raises hand in class even if you have a question Social Psych also examines impact of events on our behavior Ex Bad mood leading to acting rudely How our attitudes and behavior shape the social world Examines how attitude and behavior can shape social worldSelf fulfilling prophecyprocess by which peoples expectations about a person lead them to illicit behavior that confers expectations Behaviorism Theory of learning that describes peoples behavior as required through conditioningth20 century psychologists believed we should look at measureable stuffcant be done so we focus on the impact of positivenegative events on behavior BF Skinner trained pigeons to turn nod play pianoBehaviorist approach still influential in social psych todayPeople form attitudes and behavior through reinforcement through other peoples attitudes and behaviorBut behaviorist POV ignores role of peoples thoughts feelings and attitudesTherefore behaviorist pov too simplistic Ex Rewarding child to read may backfire bc child only sees it as something driven by reward not enjoyment Gestalt Psychology holistic view Examine influence of peoples perceptions of objects and events in world and not just by objective appearance Gestalt is German for whole formExamining the whole object and how it appears in peoples minds Ex The dotted dog picture you can see a dog even if its just a bunch of dots we cant identify if we look at just parts of itIn contrast to behaviorism because focuses on how people interpret surroundings and their cognitive processing Kurt Lewinfounder of modern social psych Offered keen sense of importance of perception in determining attitudes and behavior Historical Events Events influence other social psychologists Muzafer Sherifimprisoned in 1935 Turkish after being released studied group influence How introducing tasks that required cooperation between groups could reduce intergroup conflictStanley Milgrimlate 1960s affected by events of Nazi GermanyDemonstrated power of authority in leading to obedience controversialEarly theory and research in social psych sparked by horrific eventsFocused on aggression stereotypes and prejudice and misplaced obedience to authority positive behavior altruism attraction leadershipPositive psychrecent branch it studies peoples strength and virtuesRoothumanistic psych potential and fulfillmentAims to improve and fulfill peoples livesMartin Sleigman and Csikszentmhalyi are important in this field
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