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PSY220H1 (200)
Chapter 8

PSY 220 CH.8 summary.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Dan Dolderman

PSY 220 CH8PersuasionAds for smoking have reduced its occurrence from 50 in 1950s to 20 these days Ads by tobacco companies contribute to the 20 that continue to smokePeople can be remarkably persistent or susceptible to persuasionFunctions of AttitudesAttitudes guide behaviour Though it has 4 other main functionsThe Utilitarian Function of AttitudesUtilitarian function An attitudinal function that served to alert people to rewarding objects and situations they should approach and costly or punishing objects or situations they should avoidWhen your attitudes towards goalrelevant objects are positive you are more likely to engage in goalrelevant behaviourArgued that we have positive views towards landscape of waters trees ground cover because that was what our ancestors looked for to survivePeoples attitudes towards things can be changed by being paired with emotionally arousing stimuliThe EgoDefensive Function of AttitudesEgodefensive function An attitudinal function that enables people to maintain cherished beliefs about themselves and their world by protecting them from contradictory information John Lost has argued that political conservatism is a form of motivated or egodefensive cognition that helps people ward off certain anxieties They identify 2 core values to political conservation 1 Resistance to change 2 Endorsement of inequality To ward off fear or uncertainty conservatives gravitate to attitudes and beliefs that envision a structured and orderly world and this behaviour gives rise to core valuesThe ValueExpressive Function of AttitudesValueexpressive function An attitudinal function whereby attitudes help people express their most cherished valuesusually in groups in which these values can be supported and reinforcedReference groups Groups whose opinions matter to a person and that affect the persons opinions and beliefsWe all join groups to express our attitudes These groups are reference groupsOur commitment to the idea that people in the groups we join share our attitudes can even lead to certain forms of bias within political groups people tend to overestimate the similarity between their own attitudes and the attitudes of the leaderStudy on Bennington College a largely liberal college that was in a largely Republican area Students who went their often ended up with a change of view A follow up study using the same students found that the school formed a lasting impression on themThe Knowledge Function of AttitudesKnowledge function An attitudinal function whereby attitudes help organize peoples understanding of the world guiding how they attend to store and retrieve information
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