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Ch11 Textbook Notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Jennifer Fortune

CHAPTER 11 AGGRESSION AND VIOLENCEDefinition and Varieties of Aggression aggression is any form of behaviour that is intended to injure someone physically or psychologicallywhen aggression is intended to cause extreme injury we call it violenceHostile and Instrumental Aggressionhostile aggression harmdoing that arises out of negative emotions such as anger frustration or hatredoften impulsive primary goal is to hurt the targetinstrumental aggression harmdoing that is motivated by goals other than hurting the targetoften premeditated or plannedmost acts of aggression reflect some mixture of anger and a desire to achieve distant goalsRelational Aggressionbehaviour that is intended to damage another persons peer relationshipsmore relied on by girls than boysCrick and colleagues 1997 had teachers assess physical and relational aggression of preschoolers12 boys 3 girls categorized as physically aggressive26 girls no boys categorized as relationally aggressiveeven at age 45 children showed important gender differencesfound signs of social maladjustment among girls who used relational aggressionWerner Crick 1999 found that relational aggression among university students was associated with peer rejection and antisocial personalitycan be associated with popularity reminiscent of jeer pressureTheories of AggressionGeneral Aggression Model GAMdeveloped by Craig Anderson and colleaguesaggressive behaviour is the result of a chain of psychological processesindividual differencessituational variablesaggressive thoughtsfeelingsphysiological arousalinterpretations of the situationbehaviour choice Biological Influences on AggressionHormonal Activity and Aggressionmale sex hormone testosteroneprison inmates convicted of violent crimes were found to have higher levels of testosterone than prisoners convicted of nonviolent crimesmay in part explain gender differences in violent aggression
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