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Ch12 Textbook Notes

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Jennifer Fortune

CHAPTER 12 HELPFUL SOCIAL BEHAVIOURHelping Behaviour helping is behaviour that is intended to assist another personrecipient may or may not have requested assistance but helper perceives that aid is neededprosocial behaviour is any action that provides benefit to otherseg helping following rules of a game being honest cooperating in social situationsTypes of HelpingAnne McGuire 1994 proposed that helping behaviours fell into four major categoriescasual helpingemergency helpingsubstantial personal helpingemotional helpingPhilip Pearce Paul Amato 1980 identified three major dimensions along which helping behaviour varyplannedformal or spontaneousinformalseriousness of problemgiving what you have doing what you cancasual help is typically unplanned and not serious and involves doing what you can or giving what you haveemergency helping is usually unplanned serious always involves doing what you cansubstantial helping is typically planned often serious can involved giving what you have or doing what you canemotional helping is usually planned involves doing what you can can be seriousAltruism Versus Egoism Help Others and Help Yourselfone consequence of helping others is that it makes you feel good toowe learn that helping is associated with rewards and not helping is associated with punishmentsegoistic motivation motive for helping others in order to obtain rewards or avoid punishments Helping Others for Others Sakealtruistic motivation motive for helping purely for the sake of providing benefit to another persondistinction isnt clear cut we cant directly observe the reason for peoples helping The Evolution of Altruismprinciple of inclusive fitnesssome social behaviours eg helping relatives have been selected during the course of evolution because they increase the survival of our genesexplains why people are willing to sacrifice personal resources in favour of offspring or other close genetic relativesempathy ability to comprehend how another person is experiencing in a situationempathy for someone in need increases likelihood an individual will be helpful to that personwe are more likely to empathize with those similar andor familiar to us EmpathyAltruism Hypothesisidea that feelings of empathy can lead to behaviour that is motivated solely by wanting to help that personcan be interpreted as egoistic motivationif you empathize should cause distress if you dont help someone in need of helpthus help to reduce distress make yourself feel betterdifficult to test which interpretation occursBatson and colleagues 1981 female participants put in one of four conditionslow empathyeasy escape low empathyhard escape high empathyeasy escape high empathyhard escapein hard escape condition egoistic and altruistic motivation would both predict helping behaviourin easy escape condition egoistic motivation would predict less helping altruistic motivation would predict helpingresults showed that the only condition in which low helping rates occurred was in low empathy and easy escapeconsistent with empathyaltruism hypothesisother studies suggest that high empathy and suffering victim causes sadness even when escape is easy people help to make themselves feel betterfound that the amount of helping was directly related to extent of observers reported sadnesswhen observers were led to believe that helping wouldnt relieve their sadness they no longer offered to help Factors Influencing HelpingSocial Normsnorm of social responsibilityrule or guideline that we should help those who need help if possiblehelp is given to those who appear to have a needeg directions if lost money for a phone call or stolen walletnorm of reciprocitywe should give back in return any favours that are done for uspersonal normsguidelines that have been internalized to become expectations for oneself in particular situationsyou are more likely to help if you have internalized the norm of social responsibilityexplains why social norms fail to predict helping for some people Modelling Helpful Behaviourobserving the actions of a helpful model increases individuals helpfulness
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