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Ch10 Textbook Notes

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Jennifer Fortune

CHAPTER 10 GROUP DYNAMICS AND INTERGROUP RELATIONS group dynamics is the social psychological study of groups and group processesgroup two or more persons who are interacting with one another andor influencing one anotherranging along a continuum from little or no group character to a great deal of group characterIndividual Performance and Behaviour in Group SettingsSocial Facilitation The Effects of an Audiencepeople perform better in the presence of othersRobert Zajonc 1965 observed that most studies that showed an improvement in performance in front of an audience utilized relatively simple tasksstudies that showed a decrease in performance in front of an audience utilized relatively complex taskshypothesized that the presence of other people increases the probability of the dominant responses on a taskones that are most likely to occur when the person is aloneproposed that the presence of others is physiologically arousing which restricts individuals range of attentionnarrowed focus of attention improves performance for simple tasks because it blocks out distractions but makes complex tasks difficult for the individual to attend to all cues necessary for good performance Social Loafing Goofing Off When Others Can Do the Work social loafing is the reduction of effort that people often exhibit when working in a group where individual contributions are unidentifiableassumed to involve relaxation or reduced motivationLatane et al asked university students to cheer as loudly as possible while blindfolded and wearing headphones to mask the soundscheered alone with one or five other participants when in actuality participants always responded aloneparticipants cheered loudest when performing alone 82 as intensely with one person 74 as intensely with five peoplethe larger the group the less effort individuals tend to exert on join tasksif people believe their performance will be identifiable social loafing disappearspeople are less likely to loaf when the group is important or meaningful to themcohesiveness or attractiveness when the group is composed of friends or people who are attractive an individuals motivation is increasedGender and Cultural Differences in Social Loafingmen are more likely to do it than women
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