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PSY220H1 (200)

Ch13 Textbook Notes

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Jennifer Fortune

CHAPTER 13 LIKING LOVING AND CLOSE RELATIONSHIPS dyadic relationships develops between two people Attractioninterpersonal attraction the study of attraction or liking between two or more peopleshown that birds of a feather flock together and we prefer goodlooking birdsPropinquitynearness or proximity in physical space which creates the opportunity to meet another persona relationship cannot develop between two people until they meetThe Likelihood of Meetingspatial ecology the physical layout of buildings and the distance separating different buildings rooms and other spacesFestinger Schachter Back 1950 studied interactions between residents as Westgate West and Westgate apartmentseach had 10 apartments with 5 to one floor some residents were likely to see some of their neighbours more than others eg ap2 and 3 were nextdoor neighbours ap6 and 10 were separated by 3 other apartmentsfunctional distance closeness between two places in terms of the opportunities for interactionsap1 and 5 were located in front of stairs thus were more likely to see their upstairs neighbours even though their apartments were physically far apartasked residents to name 3 people they most often saw sociallyresults showed a clear effect of propinquity residents of ap1 and 5 enjoyed a large ndnumber of friendships with the 2 floor residentsMeeting Does Not Guarantee Likingyour neighbours could do things that bother you spoil your environmentEbbensen Kjos Konecni 1976 study similar to Westgate study but conducted in Irvine California residents asked to indicate three neighbours they liked and three they dislikedliked neighbours were the ones who lived in close proximitydisliked neighbours also lived in close proximitySimilarity Compatible Attitudesattitudesimilarity effect people find others more attractive and likeable the more similar they are in their attitudes beliefs and preferencesJones et al 2004 people are more likely to marry someone whose first or last name is similar to their ownliking leads to perceived similarityMorry 2005 when participants wrote about a positive event that had occurred in an ongoing friendship they subsequently reported being more similar to their friend than when they wrote about a negative eventRosenbaum 1986 not so much that we are attracted to similar others but rather that we are repulsed by dissimilar othersin absence of information about another person we tend to assume that we are similaradding information that tells us we are similar shouldnt cause a change from a default assumption learning that another person is dissimilar should cause an adjustment downward repulsion hypothesisSelfDisclosurethe process of people revealing to one another increasingly personal and intimate details about themselvesCollinsMiller 1994 people who are willing to disclose intimate details about themselves are generally better likedwe tend to reveal personal things to others whom we initial like we tend to like others as a result of having disclosed personal information to themMorry 2005 satisfaction with a friendship was positively correlated with how much respondents selfdisclosed to the friend and how much the friend selfdisclosed to respondentsMiller Berg Archer 1983 Opener Scale measures individual differences in peoples ability to get other people to engage in intimate selfdisclosurehigh disclosers were willing to reveal intimate personal information to anyonelow disclosers were more comfortable revealing intimate personal details to partners who had good opener abilitiesFacial Beautymost people respond more favourable to and show more interest in attractive peoplebabies show preference for attractive faces show more positive responses to attractive strangers prefer attractive dollsShared Perceptions of Beautyresearch evidence shows that beauty is not culturespecificvery young infants show a preference for faces that adults have judged as attractiveconsistency across cultural boundaries show strong agreement in their judgments of physical attractivenessThe Components of Facial Featuresfacialmetrics involves the measurement of a large number of facial featureswomen rate male faces as more attractive when those faces feature prominent cheekbones a large chin and a wide smilepreference for male faces in which the height of the eyes doesnt deviate too far from averagemen indicate preference for females with large eyes a small nose and chin prominent cheekbones high eyebrows large pupils and a large smile
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