Textbook Notes (369,035)
Canada (162,359)
Psychology (2,981)
PSY220H1 (200)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2

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Jennifer Fortune

Chapter 2 The Methods of Social Psychology THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD Theories and HypothesesTheoryexplanation of why an event or outcome occurs identifies underlying causes of an event or phenomenonprovides a framework for understanding why something occursex people who believe they can be successful will be inspired by a superstarHypothesisspecific prediction about what should occur if a theory is valid it provides the means by which a theory can be testedex increasing individuals belief that they can be successful will increase how much they are inspired by a superstarEx Melvin Lernerjust world theoryhumans need to believe that the world is a fair and just placeall motivated to believe people usually receive what they deserve y Hypothesismost people will say the world is generally fair if asked y Hypothesispeople would blamederogate victims who are suffering in negative circumstancessuffering victims threaten their belief that the world is fair Translating Theoretical Ideas into Testable Questions Operational DefinitionsOperational definitionspecific observable response that is used to measure a concepthypotheses and theories are typically expressed in conceptual terms so must be translated into ex people with many future opportunities to succeed will rate concrete objective measuresthemselves more favourably on various traits after being exposed to info about a superstar Two types of measures most common operational definitionsselfreport measures and behavioural measures SelfReport MeasuresAsk people directly if its a concept theyre willing and able to reportmust be careful though how you word questions because they can easily be misunderstood or taken differentlyavoid leading questions to get an accurate answer ask open ended questions to receive their answerSocial desirable respondingform of responding that involves giving answers that portray the respondent in a positive lightpeople may not answer questions honestlyy Control this by avoiding phrasing terms in ways that make some responses more socially desirable than others ex dont ask if someone resents immigration but if restricting it would better Canada and obtain a measure of participants general tendencies to respond in a desirable manner on all measures which can then be used to control desirable responding on a specific measure Behavioural MeasuresSince some may be unableunwilling to report some things accurately sometimes measure concepts by observing individuals behaviours
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