Textbook Notes (363,452)
Canada (158,372)
Psychology (2,948)
PSY220H1 (200)
Chapter 4

CH4 Textbook Notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Jennifer Fortune

CHAPTER 4 SOCIAL PERCEPTION: PERCEIVING THE SELF AND OTHERS What We See in Others: Social Perception Attribution Theories: Explaining Social Behaviour - attributions: judgments about why an event occurred or why someone behaved in a certain way, causal judgments The Intuitive Scientist - Harold Kelly suggested that people behave as intuitive scientists in testing everyday causal questions - make repeated observations and determine whether certain events or responses reliably occur under certain conditions - used when we have multiple observations of several individuals across several settings - covariation model of attribution: we make causal judgments by determining whether a particular behaviour correlated with a person, situation, or some combination of both The False Consensus Effect - tendency to assume that other people share our attitudes and behaviours to a greater extent than is actually the case - one reason for the bias is that we tend to interact with other people who agree with us - they arent representative of the general population but we dont always recognize this fact - another reason is that we want to believe that others agree with us - we are motivated to believe that our opinions are accurate and our actions appropriate - also evidence that people sometimes underestimate consensus when it makes them look good e.g. helping a stranded motorist Discounting and Augmentation - Kelley (1973) suggested that when we make attributions about a person based on just one observation, we rely on our knowledge of plausible causes - we use our general knowledge to infer one or more causes that might explain the behaviour and then look to see whether hose plausible causes were present - plausible internal or dispositional clause, often non-observable e.g. poor driving skill - plausible external or situational clause, normally observable e.g. bad road conditions - discounting principle: the perceived role of one cause will be diminished if other plausible causes are also present - usually reducing the perceived role of an internal clause because an external cause is known to be present - augmentation principle: perceived role of a cause will be augmented if other factors are present that would work against that behaviour - behaviour occurring despite presence of difficult inhibitory external circumstances www.notesolution.com
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