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Chapter 5

Chapter 5 the person in the situation self concept, gender and dispositions.doc

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University of Toronto St. George
Jennifer Fortune

Chapter 5 the person in the situation: self concept, gender and dispositions Dispositions: individuals’ consistencies across time and settings in a specific type of feeling, thought, and/or action, which make individuals different from other people - aka individual difference variables or personality traits - disposition reflect stable differences in a particular domain between persons ie friendless, generosity, athleticism Self esteem: a disposition that represents ppl’s judgements of their own worthiness ie owns attitude towards self - SE is a type of disposition ie personality traits - HSE -> think positively about themselves and consider themselves to be worthwhile individuals - LSW -> evaluate themselves negative and are less confident about their self worth Self concept and identity Humans can be self-reflective ie thinking about ones past and future, wondering how one is viewed by other ppl and assessing ones weakness. The product of self-reflection is our self concept Who am I? The self in me Self concept: all info about the self in memory - how we identify ourselves, the values we endorse, and how we feel about ourselves - identity is a self concept Identity: the characteristics that individuals think define them and make up their more imp qualities - identity consist of whatever characteristics you see as highly self-descriptive ie uni student, sigma chi, attitudes towards things, gender etc Attitudes, gender and dispositions Priming and situation distinctiveness Ppl juggle number ID which can sometimes conflict with one another ex professional careers and parent Spontaneous self concept: the aspect of identity that are in conscious awareness at a given point in time - the spontaneous self-concept changes in response to personal and situational factors - a recently primed identity will be easier activated in subsequent situations The distinctiveness of a feature in a particular setting influences spontaneous self concept - ppl are more aware of a specific characteristics when it makes them unique from other ppl in the situation ex: a boy in a girl’s classic arts class - any feature that distinguishes ppl form others in the setting is expected to become more accessible Studies that asked children to describe themselves suggest that situation factors can make features more prominent, which increase the likelihood that these features will be activated and become part of the spontaneous self-concept Is it me or we? Our id consist of the characteristic that we believe define us and describe our most imp qualities ie personal traits, attitudes, abilities and qualities and group membership Group memberships are central to our id -> called social identity theory Hypothesis: individuals need to feel both similar to other ppl and different form other ppl -> optimal distinctiveness theory Social id theory Social id theory: a model hypothesizing that ppl want to have positive appraisals of groups to which they belong - we judge our groups to be superior to other groups and this makes us feel good - when ppl distribute resources between in-groups and out groups, they favour members of the in-group Experiment - boys estimated dots, 2 groups over estimator and under estimator - when asked to allocate resources to the 2 groups, when participants made an allocation decision that involved an in-group member and an out-group member, they consistently favoured the in-group - this experiment used the method called minimal group paradigm Minimal group paradigm: a procedure in which participants are divided into groups based on trivial features or information Optimal distinctiveness theory Optimal distinctiveness theory: a model hypothesizing that ppl want to maintain a balance between similarity to other ppl and individuality from other ppl Sources of SE - personal experiences – positive outcomes lead to HSE, negative outcomes lead to LSE Personal experiences of successful or unsuccessful social relationships are very imp for SE - friendships, social acceptance -> HSE - loneliness, social rejection -> LSE Doing good in school -> HSE Mark Baldwin – research shows - ppl with LSE are more likely than those with HSE to think that other ppl liking them for them depends on their performance ie other will accept them if they succeed but reject them if they fail - makes ppl with LSE very anxious to perform well Social comparison and SE - ppl compare themselves to others on performance, traits etc and the results of these comparisons influence judgement of self worth - social comparison -> I outperform others -> HSE and vice versa Correlates of SE 1) Ppl w/ HSE have cl
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