Textbook Notes (363,501)
Canada (158,383)
Psychology (2,948)
PSY220H1 (200)
Chapter 9

Chapter 9

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University of Toronto St. George
Jennifer Fortune

Chapter 9: Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination -Prejudice: a negative attitude toward members of a group, which is often very strongly held Perceiver prejudges the gargets Positive and negative prejudice exists Attitude -Discrimination: negative, harmful behavior toward people based on their group membership Possible consequence of prejudice Positive and negative discrimination exists; +ve called (reverse discrimination) o +ve=specialpreferential treatment to members of a group o ve=range in actions from avoiding to genocide (eliminate an ethnic group through banishment or murder) Behavior -Stereotype: individuals beliefs that members of a group share particular attributes Positive and negative stereotypes exist 1. PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION TODAY -Blatant and overt discrimination is declining in Canada but it still exists Discrimination=illegal Equal access=mandatory policy Social norms censure prejudice, making ppl less likely to express ve feelings -Implicit attitudes: individuals automatic and often unconscious evaluations of a target Some people have negative implicit attitudes towards disadvantaged groups nut are not consciously aware of these negative automatic responses -Dovidio and Gaertner: old-fashioned blatant racial discrimination has been replaced by more subtle and ambiguous discrimination; majority group members have ambivalentor conflicted feelings toward minorities; new prejudice=aversive racism www.notesolution.com Aversive racism=modern kind of prejudice held by people who do not consider themselves prejudiced and who would find any accusation of being prejudiced aversive, but who nevertheless harbor some negative beliefs and hostile feelings toward members of minority groups Aversive racists hypothesized to exhibit discriminations toward minorities when the circumstances made negative treatment justifiable, thereby providing an excuse for discrimination Dovidio and Gaertner study: 2 samples of White Americans 1989 and 1999 Measure blatant prejudice: agreement w statements (i.e. I would mind it if a Black family moved next door to my home) o Result: less blatant prejudice from 1989 to 1999 Measure discriminatory behavior when circumstances provided an excuse: evaluate candidates for peer-counseling program o Candidate was either: White or Black; possessed strong, ambiguous or weak qualifications o Result: When qualifications were strongweak,@ both time periods recommended him whether White or Black did not recommend him whether White or Black When qualifications were ambiguous, participants recommend the white applicant more often than the Black applicant (1989=75% vs. 50%; 1999=77% vs. 40%) Result=more recent sample has less blatant prejudice, discrimination continues to occur when the circumstances mask it -Implicit Association TestAT): assesses respondents automatic, implicit attitudes towards minority groups Used bc ppl are unwilling to admit or are unaware of ve feelings -Facial EMG: used as a physiological measure of prejudice 2. STEREOTYPES: COGNITIVE SOURCES OF PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION -Cognitive perspective: prejudice is the byproduct of normal human thinking processes Stereotypes (i.e. doctors are compassionate and hockey players are aggressive) Stereotypes qualify as one kind of schema www.notesolution.com
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