Textbook Notes (362,796)
Canada (158,054)
Psychology (2,948)
PSY220H1 (200)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Jennifer Fortune

Chapter 2 J The Methods of Social Psychology Two key elements of the scientific method are: theories (explanations) and hypotheses (predictions) Theory an explanation of why an event or outcome occurs; it identifies the underlying causes of an event or phenomenon framework for understanding why something occurs Hypotheses a specific prediction about what should occur if a theory is valid; it provides the means by which a theory can be tested Most theories build on prior scientific work; involves applying a conceptprinciple from one field to another related but distinct field Just world theory (Melvin Lerner) humans need to believe that the world is a fair and just place; we are all motivated to believe that ppl usually receive what their deserve Just world theory states that humans want to believe that the world is a fair and just place, because to believe otherwise would threaten the assumption that p}o[Z}L}Z]oo]Lo]: I.e. hard work brings rewards; laziness and dishonesty do not pay off Operational definition a specific, observable response that is used to measure a concept I.e. concept of attitudes toward religion; the operational definition (measure) is scores from 0 to 10 on a response scale Two types of measures are most common in soc psych: self-report measures and behavioural measures Self-report measure asking ppl directly; i.e. belief in god, optimism about the future, visits to the dentist }ZL[oZ}l ZoL}oZoL]oo]L2}}}L }L ]::oKL} be aware of internal states such as unconscious motives that can affect their actions Socially desirable responding a form of responding that involves giving answers that portray the respondent in a positive light Behavioural measures are often unobtrusive measures assessments that are taken without the realization of the participants, thereby minimizing socially desirable responding Psychometrics a sub discipline within psychology that is devoted to understanding and refining methods for psychological measurement Focus on two properties of measures that represent accuracy: 1. Reliability 2. Validity Reliability refers to the consistency or stability of scores on a measure; the extent to which a measure ]Z}^L}K_o ]}LZ7}Z}]KL }ZZE2Z www.notesolution.com
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